Modeling Tsunami Inundation and Assessing Tsunami Hazards for the U. S. East Coast

Sponsor: National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP)


Announcement: NTHMP Landslide Tsunami Model Validation Workshop

NTHMP is conducting a Landslide Tsunami Model Validation Workshop, to be help at Texas A&M University - Galveston, on January 9-11, 2017. Workshop participants will be conducting numerical studies of a portion or all of a set of proposed benchmarks. The set of candidate benchmarks will be posted on the workshop website around the beginning of October. Candidate benchmarks will be based on a subset of available laboratory date sets for solid slide experiments and deformible slide experiments, and will include both submarine and subaerial slides. A benchmark based on a historic field event will also be provided.

The expected outcome of the workshop are to develop: (i) a set of community accepted benchmark tests for validating numerical models used for landslide tsunami generation and propagation in NTHMP inundation mapping work; (ii) an extensive workshop documentation and a web-based repository, for benchmark data, model results, and workshop documentation, results and conclusions. Further documentation of the workshop may be found at the workshop website, and will be updated as details become available.


East Coast Project Team

University of Delaware:

James T. Kirby, Professor, PI
John Callahan
Fengyan Shi
Babak Tehranirad, Graduate Research Assistant, 2010-2016

University of Rhode Island:

Stephan T. Grilli, Professor, Co-PI
Annette Grilli, Associate Research Professor
Chris Baxter Professor
Michael Shelby Graduate Research Assistant (2014-2016)
Tayebeh Tajalli-Bakhsh Graduate Research Assistant (2012-2014)
Jeffrey Harris Post-doctoral Research Assistant (2010-2012)


East Coast Project Narrative

In contrast to the long history of tsunami hazard assessment on the US West coast and Hawaii, tsunami hazard assessment along the eastern US coastline is still in its infancy, in part due to the lack of historical tsunami records and the uncertainty regarding the magnitude and return periods of potential large-scale events (e.g., transoceanic tsunamis caused by a large Lisbon 1755 type earthquake in the Azores-Gibraltar convergence zone, a large earthquake in the Caribbean subduction zone in the Puerto Rico (PR) trench or near Leeward Islands, or a flank collapse of the Cumbre Vieja Volcano (CVV) in the Canary Islands). Moreover, considerable geologic and some historical evidence (e.g., the 1929 Grand Bank landslide tsunami, and the Currituck slide site off North Carolina and Virginia) suggests that the most significant tsunami hazard in this region may arise from Submarine Mass Failures (SMF) triggered on the continental slope by moderate seismic activity (as low as Mw = 6 to the maximum expected in the region Mw = 7.5); such tsunamigenic landslides can potentially cause concentrated coastal damage affecting specific communities. In this project, we propose to assess tsunami hazard from the above and other relevant tsunami sources recently studied in the literature (ten Brink et al., 2008; MG special issue, 2009), and model the corresponding tsunami inundation in affected US East coast communities. Based on our experience with a variety of tsunami sources and case studies, we will model tsunami propagation, inundation, and runup using the robust and well-validated Fully Nonlinear Boussinesq Model (FNBM) FUNWAVE (Wei et al., 1995; Kennedy et al., 2000; Chen et al., 2000; Shi et al., 2001). Both Cartesian and curvilinear grids will be used for a variety of nested computational domains, at various grid scales. Whether frequency dispersion matters (e.g., for the SMF and other slide sources) or not (e.g., for the large co-seismic sources), this FNBM framework contains all the relevant physics without need to modify the model or its equations, whether one type of tsunami source or another is used. The same goes for linear versus nonlinear effects in generated tsunami wave trains, as well as for dissipation by bottom friction or bathymetrically induced breaking (which are modeled through adequate semi-empirical terms). Finally, a recent spherical coordinate implementation of FUNWAVE including Coriolis effects (Kirby et al., 2009), together with a very efficient parallel MPI and nested-domain implementation, make FNBM transoceanic simulations possible on a typical multi-core desktop computer or on the cluster computing environment available at the University of Delaware (UD), Center for Applied Coastal Research. Large co-seismic sources (e.g., PR trench or Lisbon 1755 sources) will be modeled as initial instantaneous ocean surface deformations, based on estimates of event size, magnitude and geological parameters, using Okada’s (1985) method. For reference, we recently successfully conducted a case study of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami using FUNWAVE, following this methodology (Grilli et al., 2007; Ioualalen et al., 2007; Karlsson et al., 2009). Co-seismic source parameters will be obtained from both our past work (Grilli et al., 2008, 2010) and other recent work reported in the literature (e.g., MG special issue, 2009).

Both historical (e.g., 1929 Grand Bank) and other local SMF sources will be modeled according to the methodology reported in Watts et al. (2003, 2005) and Grilli et al. (2005), and validated for a number of historical case studies (e.g., Day et al., 2005; Tappin et al., 2008). In this method, relevant SMF sources are semi-empirically generated from geomechanical, geological, and geometrical parameters, and specified as initial conditions (wave elevation and velocities) in the FNBM propagation model. Such (experimentally validated) sources were derived, based on a large number of 3D simulations of slide kinematics using a model solving fully nonlinear (inviscid) 3D Euler eqs. with a free surface. Since our earlier modeling and scaling analyses showed that the key parameter in SMF tsunami generation is initial acceleration, and typical SMF deformation rates do no significantly affect key tsunami features (Grilli and Watts, 2005), the methodology assumes rigid (translational or rotational) slides. But this is not a limitation and if known from sediment rheological properties, slide deformation effects can be included in the tsunami source.

Location and parameters for local SMF sources (other than historical) will first be identified by performing a first-order probabilistic analysis of SMF hazard along the east coast. Such work was already conducted by Grilli et al. (2009), for coastal areas from New Jersey to Maine. Results of this analysis were presented in terms of 100 and 500 year runup from seismically induced tsunamigenic SMFs. An extensive Monte Carlo (MC) model was developed and employed, in which distributions of relevant parameters (seismicity, sediment properties, type and location of slide, volume and dimensions of slide, water depth, etc.) were used to perform large numbers of stochastic stability analyses of submerged slopes (along actual transects across the shelf), based on conventional pseudo-static limit equilibrium methods for both translational and rotational failures. The distribution of predicted slope failures along the upper US East Coast was found to match published data quite well (Booth et al., 1985, 1993; Chaytor et al., 2007, 2009). Estimates of tsunami runup associated with SMF hazard were found to be low at most locations except, for the 500-yr tsunami, for two regions off Long Island, NY (up to 3-m) and off the New Jersey coast (up to 4-m). However, detailed deterministic tsunami generation, propagation and inundation modeling is required, in order to accurately estimate the inundation (and runup) hazard at these sites. This will be done in this project. Further, to estimate relevant SMF sources from the Florida border to New Jersey, we will perform a similar MC analysis for this East coast region, and observed slope failure distributions will again be used to ground truth the MC model predictions. Recent field measurements, slope stability analyses, and 3D-Navier-Stokes multi-fluid (material) modeling work (Abadie, et al., 2009) will be reviewed and used to define and simulate realistic scenarios for a CVV flank collapse source. These will be used to develop a defensible approach for estimating tsunami hazard from this hypothetical event. We will simulate tsunami hazard from the few selected CVV flank collapse scenarios.

We will combine ocean scale simulations of transoceanic tsunami sources, such as Lisbon 1755 like or Puerto Rico Trench co-seismic events, and CVV collapse, with regional scale simulations of these events, along with the regional scale SMF events, in order to establish the relative degree of hazards for East Coast communities. Detailed inundation studies will be conducted for highest-risk East Coast communities, and results of these studies will be used to construct a first-generation of tsunami inundation maps for the chosen communities.

Proposal and Progress Reports

  1. Kirby, J. T. and Grilli, S. T., 2010, "Modeling tsunami inundation and assessing tsunami hazards for the U. S. East Coast", Proposal to the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program.
    (pdf file here)

    1. March, 2011 Progress Report

    2. August, 2011 Progress Report

    3. February, 2012 Progress Report

    4. November, 2012 Progress Report

    5. March, 2013 Progress Report

    6. August, 2013 Progress Report

    7. April, 2014 Progress Report

    8. October, 2014 Progress Report

    9. April, 2015 Final Report

  2. Kirby, J. T. and Grilli, S. T., 2013, "Modeling tsunami inundation and assessing tsunami hazards for the U. S. East Coast (Phase 2)", Proposal to the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program.
    (pdf file here)

    1. May, 2014 Progress Report

    2. October, 2014 Progress Report

    3. May, 2015 Progress Report

    4. October, 2015 Progress Report

    5. November, 2015 Final Report

  3. Kirby, J. T. and Grilli, S. T., 2014, "Modeling tsunami inundation and assessing tsunami hazards for the U. S. East Coast (Phase 3)", Proposal to the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program.
    (pdf file here)

    1. May, 2015 Progress Report

    2. October, 2015 Progress Report

    3. November, 2015 Final Report

  4. Kirby, J. T. and Grilli, S. T., 2015, "Modeling tsunami inundation and assessing tsunami hazards for the U. S. East Coast (Phase 4)", Proposal to the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program.
    (pdf file here)

    1. May, 2016 Progress Report

First Generation Inundation Mapping and Products
(All DRAFT, under review)
Delaware
(Tehranirad et al, 2014)
  1. Bethany Beach
  2. Lewes - Rehoboth Beach
Florida
Georgia
(Tehranirad et al, 2015)
  1. Saint Elena Island
  2. Hilton Head Island
  3. Savannah
  4. Tybee Island
  5. Ossabaw Island
  6. Saint Catherine Island
Maryland
(Tehranirad et al, 2014)
  1. Ocean City
Massachusetts
(Tehranirad et al, 2015)
  1. East Nantucket
  2. West Nantucket
  3. Martha's Vineyard
  4. Falmouth
  5. Hyannis
  6. Dennis
  7. Chatham
New Jersey
(Tehranirad et al, 2015)
(Tehranirad et al, 2015)
  1. Cape May
  2. Avalon
  3. Ocean City
  4. Atlantic City
  5. Long Beach Island
  6. Barnegat Township
  7. Seaside Heights
  8. Spring Lake
  9. Sandy Hook
  10. Perth Amboy
New York
(Tehranirad et al, 2015)
(Tehranirad et al, 2015)
  1. Manhattan
  2. Brooklyn
  3. Long Beach
  4. Jones Beach
  5. Fire Island
  6. Bay Port
  7. Westhampton Beach
  8. Port Jefferson
  9. Stony Brook
  10. Huntington
  11. Queens
  12. Staten Island
  13. Montauk
  14. East Hampton
  15. Southhampton
  16. Hampton Bays
  17. Shelter Island
  18. Green Port
North Carolina
(Tehranirad et al, 2015)
(Tehranirad et al, 2015)
  1. Hatteras
  2. Ocracoke
  3. Salvo,NC
  4. Stumpy Point
  5. Engelhard
  6. Sunset Island
South Carolina
(Tehranirad et al, 2015)
  1. North Myrtle Beach
  2. Myrtle Beach
  3. Garden City
Virginia
(Tehranirad et al, 2014)
(Tehranirad et al, 2015)
  1. Chincoteague
  2. False Cape
  3. Virginia Beach
  4. Norfolk
  5. Hampton
  6. Portsmouth
  7. Cape Charles City

Technical reports describing project work

  1. Grilli, S. T., Harris, J. C. and Tajalli Bakhsh, T., 2011, "Literature review of tsunami sources affecting tsunami hazard along the U. S. East Coast", Research Report CACR-11-08, Center for Applied Coastal Research, University of Delaware.

  2. Grilli, A. and Grilli, S. T., 2013a. Far-field tsunami impact on the US East Coast from an extreme flank collapse of the Cumbre Vieja volcano (Canary Islands), Research Report No. CACR-13-03, Center for Applied Coastal Research, University of Delaware.

  3. Grilli, A and Grilli, S. T., 2013b. Modeling of tsunami generation, propagation and regional impact along the upper US East Coast from the Puerto Rico Trench. Research Report No. CACR-13-02, Center for Applied Coastal Research, University of Delaware.

  4. Grilli, A. and Grilli, S. T. 2013c. Modeling of tsunami generation, propagation and regional impact along the upper US East Coast from the Azores convergence zone. Research Report No. CACR-13-04, Center for Applied Coastal Research, University of Delaware.<

  5. Grilli, S. T., O'Reilly, C. and Tajalli Bakhsh, T., 2013. Modeling of SMF tsunami generation and regional impact along the upper US East Coast. Research Report No. CACR-13-05, Center for Applied Coastal Research, University of Delaware.

  6. Shelby, M., Grilli, S. T. and Grilli, A. R., 2015, "Dynamic tide-tsunami interaction in the Hudson River estuary", Research Report No. CACR-15-10, Center for Applied Coastal Research, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware.

  7. Tajalli Bakhsh, T. S., Grilli, S. T. and Grilli, A. R., 2015, "Dynamic tidal effects on tsunami coastal hazard in large estuaries: Case of the Chesapeake Bay/James River, USA", Research Report No. CACR-15-09, Center for Applied Coastal Research, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware.

  8. Tehranirad, B., Banihashemi, S., Kirby, J. T., Callahan, J. A. and Shi, F., 2014, "Tsunami inundation mapping for Ocean City, MD NGDC DEM", Research Report No. CACR-14-04, Center for Applied Coastal Research, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware. (DRAFT)

  9. Tehranirad, B., Kirby, J. T., Callahan, J. A. and Shi, F., 2015a, "Tsunami inundation mapping for Atlantic City, NJ NGDC DEM", Research Report No. CACR-15-01, Center for Applied Coastal Research, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware. (DRAFT)

  10. Tehranirad, B., Kirby, J. T., Callahan, J. A. and Shi, F., 2015b, "Tsunami inundation mapping for the northern half of the State of New Jersey", Research Report No. CACR-15-02, Center for Applied Coastal Research, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware. (DRAFT)

  11. Tehranirad, B., Kirby, J. T., Callahan, J. A. and Shi, F., 2015c, "Tsunami inundation mapping for New York City", Research Report No. CACR-15-03, Center for Applied Coastal Research, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware. (DRAFT)

  12. Tehranirad, B., Kirby, J. T., Callahan, J. A. and Shi, F., 2015d, "Tsunami inundation mapping for Montauk, NY NGDC DEM", Research Report No. CACR-15-04, Center for Applied Coastal Research, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware. (DRAFT)

  13. Tehranirad, B., Kirby, J. T., Callahan, J. A. and Shi, F., 2015e, "Tsunami inundation mapping for Nantucket, MA NGDC DEM", Research Report No. CACR-15-05, Center for Applied Coastal Research, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware. (DRAFT)

  14. Tehranirad, B., Kirby, J. T., Callahan, J. A. and Shi, F., 2015f, "Tsunami Inundation Mapping for Virginia Beach, VA NGDC DEM", Research Report No. CACR-15-11, Center for Applied Coastal Research, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware. (DRAFT)

  15. Tehranirad, B., Kirby, J. T., Callahan, J. A. and Shi, F., 2015g, "Tsunami Inundation Mapping for Cape Hatteras, NC NGDC DEM", Research Report No. CACR-15-12, Center for Applied Coastal Research, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware. (DRAFT)

  16. Tehranirad, B., Kirby, J. T., Callahan, J. A. and Shi, F., 2015h, "Tsunami Inundation Mapping for Myrtle Beach, SC NGDC DEM", Research Report No. CACR-15-13, Center for Applied Coastal Research, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware. (DRAFT)

  17. Tehranirad, B., Kirby, J. T., Callahan, J. A. and Shi, F., 2015i, "Tsunami Inundation Mapping for Savannah, GA NGDC DEM", Research Report No. CACR-15-14, Center for Applied Coastal Research, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware. (DRAFT)

Journal Publications and Theses describing project-related work

  1. Abadie, S., J.C. Harris, S.T. Grilli and R. Fabre. 2012. Numerical modeling of tsunami waves generated by the flank collapse of the Cumbre Vieja Volcano (La Palma, Canary Islands) : tsunami source and near field effects. J. Geophys. Res., 117, C05030, doi:10.1029/2011JC007646.

  2. Krause, T., 2011, ``Probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for the United States East Coast'', M. S. Thesis, University of Rhode Island.
    (pdf file here)

  3. Grilli, S. T., O'Reilly, C., Harris, J. C., Tajalli Bakhsh, T., Tehranirad, B., Banihashemi, S., Kirby, J. T., Baxter, C. D. P., Eggeling, T., Ma, G. and Shi, F., 2015 "Modeling of SMF tsunami hazard along the upper U. S. East Coast: Detailed impact around Ocean City, MD", Natural Hazards, 76, 705-746, doi:10.1007/s11069-014-1522-8.

  4. Tehranirad, B., Harris, J. C., Grilli, A. R., Grilli, S. T., Abadie, S., Kirby, J. T. and Shi, F., 2015, "Far-field tsunami hazard on the western European and US east coast from a large scale flank collapse of the Cumbre Vieja volcano, La Palma", Pure and Applied Geophysics, 172, 3589-3616, doi:10.1007/s00024-015-1135-5.

  5. Shelby, M., Grilli, S. T. and Grilli, A. R., 2016, "Tsunami hazard assessment in the Hudson River Estuary based on dynamic tsunami-tide simulations", Pure and Applied Geophysics, published online, doi:10.1007/s00024-016-1315-y.

Presentations describing project-related work

  1. Abadie, S., Harris, J. and Grilli, S., 2011, "Numerical simulation of tsunami generation by the potential flank collapse of the Cumbre Vieja volcano", presented at ISOPE Conference, Honolulu, June.
    (pdf file here)

  2. Baxter, C., Krauss, T. and S.T. Grilli 2011. A Monte Carlo approach for estimating tsunami hazard from submarine mass failure along the U.S. East coast. EOS Trans. AGU, 92 (52), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract NH24B-06.

  3. Grilli, S.T., Grilli, A.R., Tehranirad, B. and Kirby, J. T., 2015. "Modeling tsunami sources and their propagation in the Atlantic Ocean for coastal tsunami hazard assessment and inundation mapping along the US East Coast", presented at the Joint Coastal Structures/Solutions to Coastal Disasters Conference, Boston, September 9-11.

  4. Harris, J.C., S.T. Grilli, Abadie, S., Tajalli Bakhsh, T. 2012. Near- and far-field tsunami hazard from the potential flank collapse of the Cumbre Vieja Volcano. Proc. 21st Offshore and Polar Engng. Conf. (ISOPE12), Rodos, Greece, June 17-22, 2012), 8 pps. Intl. Society of Offshore and Polar Engng.
    (pdf file here)

  5. Schnyder, J. S. D., Kirby, J. T., Shi, F., Tehranirad, B., Eberli, G. P., Mulder, T., Ducassou, E. and Principaud, M., 2013, ``Potential for tsunami generation by submarine slope failures along the western Great Bahama Bank'', 6th Int. Symp. on Submarine Mass Movements and their Consequences, GEOMAR, Kiel, September 23-25.

  6. Schnyder, J. S. D., Kirby, J. T., Shi, F., Tehranirad, B., Eberli, G. P., Mulder, T. and Ducassou, E., 2013, "Potential for tsunami generation along the western Great Bahama Bank by submarine slope failures", Abstract NH41A-1689, AGU Fall Meeting, San Francisco, December.

  7. Tehranirad, B., Kirby, J. T., Banihashemi, S., Grilli, S. T., Tajalli Bakhsh, T. and Shi, F., 2014, "Tsunami inundation mapping on the upper East Coast of the U.S.", Young Coastal Scientists and Engineers Conference - North America, Newark, July.
    (abstract)

  8. Tehranirad, B., Kirby, J. T., Callahan, J., Shi, F., Banihashemi, S., Grilli, S. T., Grilli, A., Tajalli Bakhsh, T. and O’Reilly, C. 2014, “Tsunami inundation mapping for the upper East Coast of the United States”, AGU Fall Meeting, Abstract NH12A-04, San Francisco, Dec. 15-19.

  9. Tehranirad, B., 2015, “Effects of bathymetry on tsunami propagation on the US East Coast: Application of ray tracing to tsunamis”, presented at Young Coastal Scientists and Engineers Conference - North America, Newark, July.

  10. Tehranirad, B., Kirby, J. T., Shi, F. and Grilli, S. T., 2015, "Does morphological adjustment during tsunami inundation increase levels of hazard?", presented at Coastal Structures & Solutions to Coastal Disasters Joint Conference, COPRI/ASCE, Boston, Sept. 9-11.

  11. Tehranirad, B., Kirby, J. T., Shi, F., Grilli, S. T. and Grilli, A. R., 2015, "Is continental shelf bathymetry the main control for tsunami inundation patterns on the US East Coast?", presented at the Geological Society of America Meeting, Baltimore, October.

  12. Grilli, S. T., Grilli, A. R., Tehranirad, B. and Kirby, J. T., 2015, "Modeling tsunami sources and their propagation in the Atlantic Ocean for coastal hazard assessment and inundation mapping along the US East Coast", to appear in Proc. Coastal Sediments/Solutions to Coastal Disasters'15, Boston, September.
    (pdf)

Publications describing models used in project-related work

  1. Papers describing non hydrostatic model NHWAVE, used for generating initial tsunami waves based on SMF or co-seismic motions.

    1. Ma, G., Shi, F. and Kirby, J. T., 2012, "Shock-capturing non-hydrostatic model for fully dispersive surface wave processes", Ocean Modelling, 43-44, 22-35. doi:10.1016/j.ocemod.2011.12.002

    2. Ma, G., Kirby, J. T. and Shi, F., 2013, "Numerical simulation of tsunami waves generated by deformable submarine landslides", Ocean Modelling, 69, 146-165. doi:10.1016/j.ocemod.2013.07.001

    3. Ma, G., Kirby, J. T., Hsu, T.-J. and Shi, F., 2015, "A two-layer granular landslide model for tsunami wave generation: Theory and computation", Ocean Modelling, 93, 40-55, doi:10.1016/j.ocemod.2015.07.012

  2. Paper describing Cartesian grid version of FUNWAVE-TVD, used for inundation modeling.

    Shi, F., Kirby, J. T., Harris, J. C., Geiman, J. D. and Grilli, S. T., 2012, "A high-order adaptive time-stepping TVD solver for Boussinesq modeling of breaking waves and coastal inundation", Ocean Modelling, 43-44, 36-51.
    (pdf).

  3. Paper describing Spherical Polar coordinate version of FUNWAVE-TVD, used for ocean scale propagation.

    Kirby, J. T., Shi, F., Tehranirad, B., Harris, J. C. and Grilli, S. T., 2013, "Dispersive tsunami waves in the ocean: Model equations and sensitivity to dispersion and Coriolis effects", Ocean Modelling, 62, 39-55.
    (pdf)

  4. Report describing NTHMP benchmark testing of FUNWAVE-TVD - Cartesian coordinate version.

    Tehranirad, B., Shi, F., Kirby, J. T., Harris, J. C. and Grilli, S., 2011, "Tsunami benchmark results for fully nonlinear Boussinesq wave model FUNWAVE-TVD, Version 1.0", Research Report No. CACR-11-02, Center for Applied Coastal Research, Univ. of Delaware, Newark.
    (pdf)

  5. Report describing NTHMP benchmark testing of FUNWAVE-TVD - Spherical coordinate version.

    Shi, F., Kirby, J. T. and Tehranirad, B., 2012, "Tsunami benchmark results for spherical coordinate version of FUNWAVE-TVD (Version 1.1)", Research Report No. CACR-12-02, Center for Applied Coastal Research, Univ. of Delaware, Newark.
    (pdf)

  6. Report describing NTHMP benchmark testing of NHWAVE.

    Tehranirad, B., Kirby, J. T., Ma, G. and Shi, F., 2012, "Tsunami benchmark results for non-hydrostatic wave model NHWAVE (Version 1.0)", Research Report No. CACR-12-03, Center for Applied Coastal Research, Univ. of Delaware, Newark.
    (pdf)

Further non-project related applications of software being used in project-related work

  1. Masterlark T., S.T. Grilli, J. Harris, C. Kyriakopoulos and W. Tao, 2011. Coseismic deformation of the 2011 M9 Tohoku Earthquake inverted from geodetic data using FEMs: Implications for tsunami genesis and poroelastic stress-coupling. EOS Trans. AGU, 92 (52), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract U15B-0022.

  2. Grilli S.T., J. Harris, T. Tajalli Bakhsh, J.T. Kirby, F. Shi, T. Masterlark and C. Kyriakopoulos 2011. Numerical simulations of the 2011 Tohoku tsunami generation, propagation and coastal impact: comparison to field observations, with sensitivity analysis to co-seismic source parameters, model type and resolution. EOS Trans. AGU, 92 (52), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract NH11A-1359.

  3. Grilli S.T., J. Harris, T. Tajalli Bakhsh, J.T. Kirby, F. Shi, T. Masterlark and C. Kyriakopoulos 2012. Numerical simulation of the 2011 Tohoku tsunami: Comparison with field observations and sensitivity to model parameters. In Proc. 21st Offshore and Polar Engng. Conf. (ISOPE12, Rodos, Greece, June 17-22, 2012), pps. 6-13, Intl. Society of Offshore and Polar Engng.
    (pdf file here)

  4. Grilli S.T., J. Harris, T. Tajalli Bakhsh, T. Masterlark, C. Kyriakopoulos, J.T. Kirby and F. Shi, 2013, "Numerical simulation of the 2011 Tohoku tsunami based on a new transient FEM co-seismic source: Comparison to far- and near-filed observations", Pure and Applied Geophysics, 170, 1333-1359, doi:10.1007/s00024-012-0528-y .

  5. Tappin, D. R., Grilli, S. T., Harris, J. C., Geller, R. J., Masterlark, T., Kirby, J. T., Shi, F., Ma, G., Thingbaijam, K. K. S. and Mai, P. M., 2014, "Did a submarine landslide contribute to the 2011 Tohoku tsunami?", Marine Geology, 357, 344-361, doi:10.1016/j.margeo.2014.09.043 .

  6. Grilli, S.T., Grosdidier S. and C.-A. Guerin 2015. Modeling of tsunami detection by High Frequency Radar based on simulated tsunami case studies in the Mediterranean Sea. Submitted for publication in Proc. 25th Offshore and Polar Engng. Conf. (ISOPE15, Kona, HI, USA. June 21-26, 2015). pps. 851-859. Intl. Society of Offshore and Polar Engng.

  7. Grilli, A.R., Grilli S.T., David, E. and C. Coulet 2015. Modeling of tsunami propagation in the Atlantic Ocean Basin for tsunami hazard assessment along the North Shore of Hispaniola. In Proc. 25th Offshore and Polar Engng. Conf. (ISOPE15, Kona, HI, USA. June 21-26, 2015), pps. 733-740. Intl. Society of Offshore and Polar Engng.

  8. Grilli, S.T., Grosdidier S. and C.-A. Guerin 2015. Tsunami detection by High Frequency Radar beyond the continental shelf. I. Algorithms and validation on idealized case studies. Pure and Applied Geophysics, published online 28 October, DOI: 10.1007/s00024-015-1193-8

  9. Kirby, J. T., Shi, F., Nicolsky, D. and Misra, S., 2016, "The 27 April 1975 Kitimat, British Columbia submarine landslide tsunami: A comparison of modeling approaches", Landslides, in press, doi:10.1007/s10346-016-0682-x. , .

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kirby@udel.edu
May 5, 2016