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Cluster Expectations

Grades 9-12

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Civics Benchmarks
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History Benchmarks


Analyze the ways in which the structure and purposes of different governments around the world reflect differing ideologies, cultures, values, and histories.



Demonstrate how individual economic choices are made within the context of a market economy in which markets influence the production and distribution of goods and services.


Identify geographic patterns which emerge when collected data is mapped, and analyze mapped patterns through the application of such common geographical principles as: hierarchy, accessibility, diffusion, and complimentarity. Apply the analysis of mapped patterns to the solution of problems.


Analyze historical materials to trace the development of an idea or trend across space or over a prolonged period of time in order to explain patterns of historical continuity and change.


Examine and analyze the extra-Constitutional role that political parties play in American politics.

Understand that the functioning of the government is a dynamic process which combines the formal balances of power incorporated in the Constitution with traditions, precedents, and interpretations which have evolved over the past 200 years.



Develop an understanding of how economies function as a whole, including the causes and effects of inflation, unemployment, business cycles, and monetary and fiscal policies.


Understand the Earth's physical environment as a set of interconnected systems (ecosystems) and the ways humans have perceived, reacted to, and changed environments at the local to global scales.


Develop and implement effective research strategies for investigation a given historical topic.

Examine and analyze primary and secondary sources in order to differentiate between historical facts and historical interpretations.



Understand that citizens are individually responsible for keeping themselves informed about public policy issues on the local, state, and federal levels; participating in the civic process; and upholding the laws of the land.


[Economic Systems]

Analyze the wide range of opportunities and consequences resulting from the current transitions from command to market economies in many countries. 


Understand the processes which result in distinctive cultures, economic activity, and settlement form in particular locations across the world.


Compare competing historical narratives, by contrasting different historians' choice of questions, use and choice of sources, perspectives, beliefs, and points of view, in order to demonstrate how these factors contribute to different interpretations.



Develop and employ the skills necessary to work with government programs and agencies.

Understand the process of working within a political party, a commission engaged in examining public policy, or a citizen's group.


[International Trade]

Analyze and interpret the influence of the distribution of the world's resources, political stability, national efforts to encourage or discourage trade, and the flow of investment on patterns of international trade.


Apply knowledge of the types of regions and methods of drawing boundaries to interpret the Earth's changing complexity.


Develop an understanding of modern United States history, its connections to both Delaware and world history. 

Develop an understanding of recent and modern world history and its connections to United States history.

(see Teacher's Desk Reference for list of general topics) 

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