Conference presentations and papers on V2G

Presentations from The Seattle Electric Vehicle to Grid Forum (PDFs), also Press release.

The two papers below are from a symposium organized by Alec Brooks, "Vehicle to Grid: A new Vision for Electric Transportation," at the EVAA Electric Transportation Industry Conference (Sacramento, Dec. 2001).

David Hawkins, from the California Independent System Operator, discusses V2G as a resource for grid regulation in California. He explains what the ISO does, and compares V2G with traditional sources of regulation--generators running at partial speed. He also describes the characteristics of wind generation, of which 2-3 GW is planned to be added in California, and why V2G is an ideal complement for it. Click to see the slides in PDF: David Hawkins, 2001, "Vehicle to Grid--A Control Area Operators Perspective"

These slides give an overview of V2G for regulation, then give specifications for already built by AC Propulsion that are capable of doing real-time grid regulation. It also describes two V2G demonstration projects they are carrying out, the "EV Grid Regulation Demonstration Project" and the "Grid Connected Hybrid Vehicle Project." Click for PDF of slides: Alec Brooks, 2001, "Electric Drive Vehicles: A Huge New Distributed Energy Resource"

Unpublished Draft Papers

Listed below are full papers that (unlike the above slide presentations) give full descriptive text and supporting explantations and calculations. They are unpublished at this time, but may be submitted for publication.

This paper analyzes stationary fuel cells and vehicle fuel cells under different assumptions about rates and natural gas prices. For "net metering", the customer is credited for power flowing back through the meter at retail rates, but no credit is given for providing power at the precise time needed by the utility for ancillary services. In this analysis, net metering and peak power (or demand charge avoidance) yield positive cash flow in commercial situations, but under most assumptions, not residential. This analysis is an expanded and more thorough analysis of the case of fuel cell V2G that confirms the conclusion of the 2001 CARB/LADWP report--that V2G is less likely to be economical for baseload and peak shaving (than ancillary services), even with net metering. (Expanded from Lipman's presentation the V2G symposium at EVAA 2001.) Click for PDF of full draft paper: Timothy E. Lipman, Jennifer L. Edwards and Daniel M. Kammen, 2002, "Economic Implications of Net Metering for Stationary and Motor Vehicle Fuel Cell Systems in California" manuscript, January 31, 2002, Renewable and Appropriate Energy Lab (RAEL), Energy and Resources Group, University of California, Berkeley.

This is a full paper version of a conference presentation. It reviews the types of ancillary services that grid operators need, and how each EDV type could meet them. Unique to this paper are the results from field testing of a battery vehicle for grid regulation, and testing of a hybrid vehicle for generation. Click for PDF of full paper: Alec Brooks and Tom Gage, 2001, "Integration of Electric Drive Vehicles with the Electric Power Grid -- a New Value Stream". Paper presented at the 18th International Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition, 20-24 October 2001, Berlin, Germany.