- Internet Background
- Internet History
- Network of Networks
- Packet Switching Technology
- Internet Tools
- Internet's Relevance to Business
- Media Models
- Consumer Demand Pull vs. Marketer Push
- Level of Involvement
- Structural Issues
US Department of Defence Advanced Research project.
1990s internet evolves into a commercial medium.
The Internet is a network of networks. One of the reasons as to why
nobody really knows how many people have access to the internet is because
you have to determine:
How many networks access the internet (a number that's growing
How many computers access each network
How many users access each computer
A January 1997 survey found:
16,146,000 hosts (computer on a network with Internet access)
828,000 domains (networks on the Internet)
Estimates suggest there are between 3 to 7 people per host with access to
All the major commercial online providers, such as
American Online, were
traditionally networks in isolation (i.e. AOL users only had access to AOL
information and other AOL users), and not a part of the Internet. This
changed as demand for access to the Internet from their users forced them
to create access or risk losing their customers. These providers now
promote access to the Internet as a primary benefit of subcribing, their
proprietary information secondary.
Two key advantages of packet switching technology that
is incorporated into the internet are:
The ability to break a communication into many small "chunks"
The ability to route information the most efficient way
Packet switching breaks down messages into very small chunks that are
dispursed over the internet to arrive at the intended location and
compiled in an efficent manner. The packets may take different routes
(variable routing) if this is necessary (i.e. a node is busy or down).
Thus the internet does not rely on any particular node (except for the
receiver's node) and link between nodes, to deliver a message. It also
allows several users to share a particular link.
The following example explains this concept.
Imagine you are part of a quartet performing in San Francisco. Your agent
has been asked that you play at the Royal Albert Hall (London) the
evening at a "concert of a lifetime". As you are travelling to the
airport in your limousine your agent is making your travel arrangements.
Due to the short notice of departure you are unable to sit together. In
fact, you have to fly American Airlines (via Chicago), the other three
members have to fly US Air (via Philadelphia), Conowingo Air (via Jamaica)
and Going Broke Air (via Iceland). You depart on your different airlines,
taking your different routes, arriving in London the next morning. You
then reassemble and prepare for the concert.
Thanks Richard Gordon :)
Users do not actually use the internet, much like a car driver does not
actually use the highway. Users use the various tools (cars/vans/buses)
internet to perform different tasks. Now we know why it has been termed
the "Information Superhighway"!! The following are the more popular tools
that are used on the internet.
It is another medium of communication, with many unique attributes. It
is also the first mass communications medium that facilitates
- Email, 1 to 1 communication (1 to few)
- TRN, Many to many communication
- Telnet, Remote login
- FTP, Transfer of files from one computer to another
- WWW, All the above and more, Primary focus of the course
Comparing www with other mass media
||1 to many
||1 to many
||1 to many
||1 to many
||1 to many
||1 to many
||1 to 1
Cont. Int.: N (no interactivity) Y (interactivity)
Refers to the interactivity of the content delivered by the medium.
Comm. Model: 1 to many (mass targeting), 1 to 1 (mass
Comm. Model refers to the communications model.
Linear: L (Linear), N (Non Linear)
This refers to the method in which the user can process the
Obtrusive: N (unobtrusive) Y (obtrusive)
Refers to whether the media pushes (obtrusive) the message to the
consumer, or the consumer pulls (unobtrusive) the information.
Control: N (no consumer control) Y (consumer control)
whether the user has control over processing the
Presentation: P (Print), A (Audio), V (Video), MM (Multi-media)
This refers to the media available to rpesent the information.
Reach Flex.: S (no flexiblilty) Q (moderate flexibility) F
(determined by customer)
This refers to the ability to use the media to cover breadths of
marketplaces (i.e., local, regional, national and/or international).
Scalable: Y (yes), N (no)
Scalable refers to the marginal cost of increasing the audience size that
is exposed to the message.
Transactional: Y (yes), N (no)
This refers to the ability to use the media to execute transactions.
Traditional Media Model
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WWW Communication Model
Communication flow is from:Marketer to WWW
Target Audience (TA) to WWW
TA to Marketer (via Email)
Marketer to TA
The cost of using WWW as a communications medium is significantly less
than more traditional marketing media (TV, Radio, Newspapers etc.) For a
$5,000 investment a marketer can establish an effective web-site as the
focal point of an online marketing effort. This is enabling
(small) companies, that find other media cost prohibitive, to compete
WWW is also freeing up the publishing market which has traditionally been
the territory of the very few (those that can afford it). Now small
publishing companies are evolving and individuals have the ability to use
WWW to "publish" information. The plethora of information, however, is
creating an interesting dilemma: too much information creates individual
processing problems. There is now a need for a market to evolve that
focuses on efficient information delivery and processing.
All information is hosted on the marketer's computer servers and accessed
on demand by the consumer. This allows the marketer to keep information
current and targeted. Traditional media "deliver" information to their
Marketer Push (Traditional)
Marketer Information-------------> Mass Market
Demand Pull (Server host)
Marketer Information <----------- Individual customer demand
Approximately $300 million in 1996 was the total spent on WWW
as a medium ($5bn predicted by the year 2000, Jupiter Communications). Is
that the true picture of the marketing investment that companies have
made in this medium?...no!!
There are two
considerations that one should keep in mind before evaluating media dollar
The age of the medium (Wired magazine pioneered online advertising in
The Dollar value quoted is for online ads (banners) and not for online
The true value of the medium should be reflected in its ability to allow a
corporate presence to perform marketing functions, not just the value of
the advertising banners which are essentially there to drive browsers to
the online presence. Other media do not allow for a "presence" in the
same sense that WWW does, thus dollar comparisons are invalid.
WWW can be thought of as comprising three main components:
Language is the language
that is used to develop WWW documents. This language was developed in
1989 by Tim
Berners-Lee at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics
(CERN) in Switzerland. It is available free to use. Click on
view option of your
Netscape browser and scroll down to the view source option to view the
HTML code that was used to create this document. This ability to view the
source document makes learning the HTML language relatively simple. The
need to learn the language is diminished by the use of WYSWYG HTML text
that operate databases and animation use more advanced programs such as
CGI and Java.
"Browsers" are software programs that are used to view WWW documents. To
HTML and browser in simple context you can use the analogy of the
television. You have programs (developed content) and TV sets (browsers).
The marketplace for browsers is very competitive. The market leader (and
commercial pioneer) is
Netscape's Netscape Navigator. Microsoft's Internet Explorer is emerging
as a competitive threat, as one
would imagine once Microsoft realized the value of an internet strategy.
The third component is the access provider. To continue our TV
analogy, the access provider is similar to your local cable
company (assuming that you need a cable company to provide you
access to the network and cable TV). An Internet user generally has
access from two disctinct
Work/School, using their corporate or school account
Home, using an internet service provider
The marketplace for commercial internet service providers is very
competitive. The types of companies involved can be broken down as
Major service providers such as:
Telephone companies such as AT&T
Local Internet Service Providers such as Erols, Panix, Earthlink
Local Delaware providers.
- American Online
- Microsoft Network (bundled with Windows 95)