Overheads for Unit 2—Chapter 3 (Instructional Goals and Objectives)

OH 1
Clear and Appropriate Instructional Goals—Essential to Good Teaching and Good Assessment


OH 2
Instructional Objectives as Learning Outcomes

Should focus on:

Evidence can vary in:

Trends in instructional goals:


OH 3
Domains of Learning Outcomes that Might be Considered (p. 58): Example of One Classification

NOTE: This is an example of a very broad taxonomy because it includes more than cognitive skills.

  1. Knowledge
  2. 1.1 Terminology
    1.2 Specific facts
    1.3 Concepts and principles
    1.4 Methods and procedures

  3. Understanding
  4. 2.1 Concepts and principles
    2.2 Methods and procedures
    2.3 Written material, graphs, maps, and numerical data
    2.4 Problem situations

  5. Application

    3.1 Factual information
    3.2 Concepts and principles
    3.3 Methods and procedures
    3.4 Problem-solving skills

  6. Thinking skills

  7. 4.1 Critical thinking
    4.2 Scientific thinking

  8. General skills

  9. 5.1 Laboratory skills
    5.2 Performance skills
    5.3 Communication skills
    5.4 Computational skills
    5.5 Social skills

  10. Attitudes

  11. 6.1 Social attitudes
    6.2 Scientific attitudes

  12. Interests

  13. 7.1 Personal interests
    7.2 Educational interests
    7.3 Vocational interests

  14. Appreciations

  15. 8.1 Literature, art, and music
    8.2 Social and scientific achievements

  16. Adjustments

  17. 9.1 Social adjustments
    9.2 Emotional adjustments


OH 4
Bloom Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: 3 Broad Domains

NOTE: This is the most widely used taxonomy in education. It is even broader than the one above because it includes motor skills too. We will be focusing on its first domain, cognitive skills.

  1. Cognitive domain (knowledge outcomes; intellectual abilities and skills)
  2. Affective domain (attitudes, interests, appreciation, modes of adjustment)
  3. Psychomotor domain (perceptual and motor skills

Note: Broad taxonomies like this help you make sure that you have not forgotten some important objectives. The sub-categories are listed in Appendix G


OH 5
Six Levels of Bloom’s Cognitive Taxonomy of Objectives—Sample Verbs

NOTE: Two names for each of the six levels are given here because the taxonomy was recently revised. Your textbook uses the old names. The (somewhat) revised categories can be downloaded from the reading list for this unit.

WARNING ABOUT THE VERBS: These verbs are all appropriate for the Bloom levels under which they are listed, but using them does not guarantee that the specific learning objective you used them in will be at that Bloom level. For instance, some verbs can be used at more that one Bloom level (e.g., selects, classifies, calculates, demonstrates) and the Bloom level is determined by the verb in combination with the rest of the statement. For example, "select (or identify) definition of key concepts" would be at the knowledge level (because they could just be regurgitation of facts), but "select examples of different weather phenomena" would be at the understand level and "select appropriate procedure for analyzing age of rock samples" would be at the apply level.

ANOTHER WARNING: These verbs are for both supply and selection items. However, you will be able to use only selection verbs in formulating the specific learning objectives for the 40 multiple choice questions in your project because MC questions are selection items (that is, students do not supply the content of answers but only select among the choices you offer. So, for example, you will need to specify "select definition of key concepts" rather than "define key concepts." By the way, these specific learning objectives would be at Bloom's "knowledge" level.

  1. Knowledge/Remember
  2. Comprehension/Understand
  3. Application/Apply
  4. Analysis
  5. Evaluation/Evaluate
  6. Synthesis/Create


OH 6
Comments on Bloom’s Taxonomy


Recent revisions:

You may wish to use the revised taxonomy in your project. Either version is OK. They are essentially the same, except that:

See the reading assignment for a fuller description of the revisions.


OH 7
Criteria for Assembling Your Full Set of Objectives

  1. Comprehensiveness (don’t overlook the higher level Bloom outcomes)
  2. Harmony with district/state objectives (if you can determine them!)
  3. Soundness—harmony with learning principles, including:
  4. Feasibility--number, time, developmental level


OH 8
How to State Learning Objectives

  1. It is useful to think of two levels of learning objectives: general and specific.
  2. Stating the general objectives:
  3. Stating the specific learning outcomes
  4. HELPFUL HINT: I personally find general objectives most useful when they are "content-general." I use them as the major headings down the left side of my table of specifications. Then I organize my specific learning objectives under them as subheadings. (There are examples in the on-line notes for Chapter 6). I often list the same SLO under several content headings (e.g., "identify definitions..."). I use this particular system (you might like others) because it makes it easy for me to see if I have covered my achievement domain fully and given appropriate weight to different content and different processes.


    OH 9
    Summary of Guidance on Writing Instructional Objectives

    1. Review the "Summary of Steps" on pages 69-70 for writing general and specific objectives
    2. Writing good objectives is, in your instructor’s view, the most important step in designing a classroom test. When done well, it makes your job easier and produces much better results—better instruction, better tests, and more student learning.