Overheads for Unit 2—Chapter 2 (Role of Assessment in Teaching)


OH 1
Review of Unit 1


OH 2
What is "assessment"?


OH 3
What decisions benefit from systematic assessment (i.e., high quality information)?

  1. How realistic are my plans for these students?
  2. How should I group students?
  3. Are my students ready for the next learning experience?
  4. How well are my students meeting my learning goals for them?
  5. How far are my students progressing beyond the minimum?
  6. When would a review be most useful?
  7. What learning problems are students having?
  8. Which students need to be referred for help?
  9. Which students have poor insight into their performance?
  10. What grades should I assign?
  11. What do I tell parents about their children’s progress?
  12. How effective was my teaching??


OH 4
Distinction between Assessment, Test, and Measurement

Assessment = Any procedure (formal or informal) used to obtain information about student performance. Used to make a value judgment about learning, etc.

Test = A particular type of assessment. It generally fits this description:

    1. Consists of a set of questions
    2. Administered during a fixed time period (e.g., 1-2 hours)
    3. Give under reasonably comparable conditions for all students

Measurement = A process of assigning numbers to individuals or their characteristics according to specified rules. This quantifies the value judgment.

NOTE: Each term is successively more limited in scope.


OH 5
General Principles for Classroom Assessment

  1. Set clear learning objectives
  2. Assessments should be appropriate (relevant) for those objectives
  3. A variety of objectives therefore generally requires a variety of assessment techniques
  4. Know the limitations of each form of assessment (e.g., sampling error, measurement error)
  5. Don’t forget that assessments are a means, not an end in themselves. That is, don’t forget their purpose.


OH 6
Assessment as an Essential Link in the Teaching-Learning Process


OH 7
Different Kinds of Assessment

Maximal vs. typical (content)

Fixed-choice vs. complex performance (format)

Location in instructional process (purpose)

Type of interpretation



OH 8
More Detail on Norm- vs. Criterion-Referenced Test Interpretations


  1. Require specification of achievement domain to be measured
  2. Require relevant, representative sample of test items
  3. Use same types of test items
  4. Use same rules for item writing (except item difficulty)
  5. Judged by same technical standards (validity, reliability)
  6. Useful in educational assessment



OH 9
Summary Point

Instruction and assessment are interacting partners in promoting student learning!