Second Edition








University of Delaware

Editor in Chief




Guidelines for Consulting Editors and Contributors

Revised and Expanded from W. Bright痴 Guide for First Edition













Oxford International Encyclopedia of Linguistics

Second Edition


Guidelines for Consulting Editors and Contributors




The first edition of the Encyclopedia of Linguistics was a great success. It contained some 1.5 million words and a wide range of graphics in more than 600 articles. The second edition seeks to continue this success. These guidelines describe the procedures for the second edition and are intended to help Consulting Editors plan their areas and Contributors plan and write article(s). Questions about content, scope, style, format, or procedure should be directed to the Editor in Chief or an area痴 Consulting Editor.


As with all encyclopedias, the aim of the Encyclopedia of Linguistics is to provide a representative, accessible, and even-handed picture of the field. To this end, articles are not intended to be an exhaustive statement on a subject or a forum to advance one theoretical position over another. The Encyclopedia has proven to have a diverse readership from interested nonlinguists, to undergraduates and graduate students, to established scholars seeking clarifications or overviews. This varied readership and the rapid shift in theoretical orientation that characterizes the field necessitate that the Encyclopedia continue to have a balanced style and approach.


Scope of Second Edition

The second edition of the Encyclopedia has the following main goals:


1.                    revision and update of all articles, bibliography, graphics, and index.

2.                    revision of organization to include more overviews and certain changes in headword selection.

3.                    addition of articles on subjects not covered in the first edition.

4.                    replacement of glossary by enhanced index and controlled technical definition in text, with use of free space for more exposition.

5.                    exploration of new formats, including possible three-volume set, electronic version, and paperback.


The second edition is expected to have 40% revision, excluding bibliographies and graphics. Most of the articles will be substantive essays of up to 5,000 words. All articles will be signed.


Organization of Second Edition

Order of Entries. Entries will be in alphabetical order by headword.


Independent Entries. Most entries will be single headwords.


Composite Entries. Some entries will be composite, usually containing an overview and nested subentries. These will normally be found under headwords that stand for a large subfield of linguistics.


Blind Entries. Some entries will be empty except for directing the reader to a cross-reference: e.g., Boundary. See Juncture.


Overviews. All areas will have some form of overview a general summary of the nature of the area, approach, and issues. Some overviews will be independent entries; some will be part of composite entries.


Cross-References. A system of cross-references based on the first edition will be an essential part of the new edition.


Index. A detailed index will be in the second edition. Contributors and Editors should keep a list of the essential terms and concepts in their articles and areas for use in developing the final index.


Directory of Contributors. A directory of Contributors and their institutional affiliations will appear at the end of the Encyclopedia.


Synoptic Outline. A thematically arranged list of entries will appear at the end of the Encyclopedia. This list is designed to show patterns of interrelated articles and reveal the conceptual structure of the work as a whole.

Responsibilities of Editors

Editor In Chief.

        Oversee all activities of the second edition, including choice and extent of article revision, new article development, headword choice, indexing, and cross-referencing.


        Work with Consulting Editors to ensure comprehensiveness, accuracy of revision, reordering of articles, and timely delivery of manuscripts.


        Work with OUP to ensure efficient production of volumes.


Note: While Consulting Editors have major responsibility in determining the coverage of their areas, and Contributors have the responsibility of exposition, the Editor in Chief makes the ultimate decisions on all editorial matters.


Consulting Editors.

        Review area and develop revision plan to include the following:


Names of articles to be revised and nature and extent of revision (incl. bibliographies and graphics): 40% revision of text.

Titles of new articles to be written: 5,000 words maximum; this word count included in the 40% overall limit.


Names and full addresses (incl. email) of Contributors.


Description of overview for area and location in Encyclopedia (independent or composite entry).


Target Date for revision plan to Editor in Chief: March 1, 2000.


        Recruit and oversee commissioning of Contributors to area.

Target Date: April 15, 2000.


        Receive drafts of new articles or revisions of old articles (simultaneously to Editor in Chief, activities coordinated).

Target Date: December 15, 2000.


        Review and edit drafts of articles and return to Contributors for revision.

Target Date: March 1, 2001.


        Receive, review, and approve final versions of articles.

Target Date: September 1, 2001.


        Develop list of cross-references and index terms for area.

Target Date: September 1, 2001.


Consulting Editors may provide input on any aspect of the Encyclopedia and may be asked for advice as needed and as fits their expertise.


Responsibilities of Contributors

        Review first-edition article or develop new article and work with Consulting Editor for area to plan revision (incl. revised bibliography and, if necessary, revised graphics).

Target Date: March 1, 2000.


        Agree to commissioning.

Target Date: April 15, 2000.


        Revise old articles (40% revision, excluding bibliography and graphics) or write new articles and send draft to Consulting Editor and Editor in Chief.

Target Date: December 15, 2000.


        Revise first draft per Consulting Editor痴 and Editor in Chief痴 comments and send final version to Consulting Editor and Editor in Chief.

Target Date: September 1, 2001.


        Work with Consulting Editor to develop list of index terms.

Target Date: September 1, 2001.



General Guidelines for Writing Articles

Coverage. The Encyclopedia is a reference work and so will be consulted mainly by readers with some sophistication in linguistics, but who nevertheless have varying backgrounds. Articles should therefore provide an orientation and general picture of a topic. They should let readers know what major viewpoints exist and what the values of each may be. If a topic involves the history of a dispute, the article should reflect current consensus or its lack. All sides of controversial issues should be fairly represented: an encyclopedia is an appropriate place to summarize unresolved issues, but not debate them.


Titles. The titles of articles will almost always be an entry somewhere in the Encyclopedia (headword, subentry, cross-reference, etc.). Contributors should review the titles of their articles and those of related articles to ensure that they fairly represent the field and are user-friendly. Most users of the Encyclopedia will be looking under a particular term or concept they have heard of and want to know more about. Article titles should thus be chosen in terms of more-or-less established concepts, and articles should be organized with consideration for those concepts. It may often be appropriate to introduce a concept or term not already well-known, but it should not be used as a major organizing point for an article. In the first edition, titles using frequent terms in the field language, linguistics, etc. were kept to a minimum so as to allow a more even distribution of headwords throughout the work. This restriction will be loosened in the second edition to promote usability.


Terminology. An important component of the Encyclopedia will be technical terms. The first edition had a separate glossary with dictionary-type entries. The glossary will not be in the second edition. Instead, technical terms will be defined in the articles, preferably at the point of first use in the article that most naturally subsumes the term. Cross-referencing and indexing will assume the task of look-up. To this end, Contributors should review their articles for technical terms and their definitions. The Consulting Editors and Editor in Chief will oversee accuracy, cross-referencing, and avoidance of duplication. For example, the term allophone should be defined under the article on Phoneme (if there will be one) or Phonology; subsequent instances of the term can use simple cross-reference (see) or cross-reference with modification [see; in the present theory X, an allophone]. We will develop some system of notation or typeface to capture these relationships efficiently. To facilitate cross-referencing and indexing, Contributors will have to submit a list of the technical terms and phrases in their articles.


Writing Style. Contributors should strive for clarity and conciseness, keeping in mind that they are writing for a more diverse audience than that of a professional journal. Many Contributors will be discussing topics they have already surveyed in reference works, textbooks, or other publications. You are free to paraphrase your own earlier work, adapting it to the scope and needs of the Encyclopedia, but any verbatim repetition that would infringe copyright restrictions should be avoided. Your article will likely be consulted for a decade or more, so please avoid expressions like now, at present, or recent. It is also important that the articles have sufficient examples to illustrate technical points. To this end, Contributors should review their choices of sample sentences, cited forms, and other textual illustrations for accuracy, clarity, and usefulness.


Graphics. The term graphics includes all pictorial illustrations, tables, and line drawings. These representations are an essential part of the Encyclopedia and should be reviewed for appropriateness, accuracy (maps and notational categories in diagrams change!) and ease of use. Graphics are expensive in terms of space and cost of development, so while they are vital, they should also be used judiciously. Captions should be reviewed and new ones provided where appropriate. Captions should be typed separately from the graphics themselves and separately from the main typescript. New pictorial illustrations and line drawings should be submitted in .EPS or .TIFF file formats. Avoid all shading in illustrations that you are creating yourself.


Permissions. By contract, you are to secure, at your own expense, necessary permission to reproduce material to which the rights are held by others. In general, permission is not needed for the quotation of short prose passages (properly attributed), but it will be required for the reproduction of graphics previously published.


Format. Please type your article with generous margins, on one side of the paper. All material, including tables, formulas, bibliography, illustrations, and quotations, should be double-spaced and in 12 pt. Times Roman type. Please avoid using a Courier font. In the case of a work that potentially may contain extensive diacritical marks, Times Roman is better suited to capture and represent these diacriticals. Clearly indicate all alignments, such as the alignment of linguistic forms and their glosses.

   Footnotes are not to be used.

   Graphics and their captions are to be submitted on separate pages with an indication in the text as to where they belong.

   English is the language of all articles. If you are not a native speaker/writer, please get editorial advice -- preferably from a scholar in your field -- before submitting your article.

   Headings may use no more than two levels (i.e., a heading and a subheading) in addition to the title. Do not begin your article with a heading, and do not use two levels of heading in immediate succession. Begin text on the same line as the heading or subheading.

   Personal names of people of recent centuries should be cited as full names the first time, thereafter only surnames.

   Spelling and usage should conform to American standard (e.g. color, recognize). For general guidelines on stylistic choice, follow the style of the journal Language.

   Transliteration of material from languages written in non-Roman alphabets should, in general, be in the systems most used by international scholars of those languages: e.g., Cyrillic should be transcribed with , , č, j rather than sh, zh, ch, y. Mandarin Chinese should be in Pinyin with tone marks, and Japanese in National Romanization.

   Typefaces should conform to the following usages. Use the word-processing functions to style text. Linguistic examples and words to be emphasized should be in italics and set in italics on disk. Small capitals, if necessary (as in HEADINGS), can be indicated in small capitals on disk. If this is difficult, small-capital text can be set in all-capital letters (but indicate this by a note on the hardcopy that the text should set in small capitals). Boldface should be avoided, unless it is required for a specific usage in linguistic examples. In this case, it can be indicated by using boldface on disk. Underscoring can be used to indicate actual underscoring on disk.

   Abbreviations peculiar to linguistics (e.g., NP) should be explained on their first occurrence in each article. You may use brackets, N[oun] P[hrase], on first occurrence, and then the accepted abbreviation, NP, thereafter.

   Punctuation should conform to LSA style. Double quotation marks are used only for direct quotation ( ): commas and periods inside the last double quote mark (店X, 店X.), question and exclamation marks inside or outside depending on whether they are in the quote (展hat? he asked. Did he say 努hat?), and colons and semicolons outside the last double quote (店XX:). Single quotation marks ( ) are used in all other quotation cases glosses, quotes in quotes, shudder and attention-getting signals; other punctuation appears outside the last single quote (Chien means 租og. He claims it is a 奏heory, but not many others think so.)

   Your name should be at the end of your article precisely as you wish it to appear in print.


Word Count. Authors of new articles are asked to write a certain number of words, exclusive of graphics and bibliographical references; please keep to the stated limits. A double-spaced page of 12 pt. type will contain 200-225 words. Use the word count option on your word processing software to get an exact count and submit this number with the manuscript.


Cross-References. There will be extensive cross-references among articles. This will be mainly the responsibility of the Consulting Editors and the Editor in Chief; however, Contributors are invited to propose items for cross-reference for their articles.


Bibliography. Every article should have a list of key bibliographical references at the end of the article text. Because an important function of an encyclopedia article is to direct readers to other sources, the bibliography should be a list of general references plus those referenced in text. (Keep the latter to a minimum.) All bibliographies should contain citations of books recommended for further reading. Bibliographies should be no longer than eight or ten titles. Bibliographical style should conform to the following samples.



Chomsky, Noam. 1957. Syntactic structures. (Janua linguarum, 4.) The Hague: Mouton.


Frauenfelder, Uli H., & Lorraine K. Tyler, eds. 1987. Spoken word recognition. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.


Journal Article:

Ladefoged, Peter. 1980. What are linguistic sounds made of? Language 56.485-502.


McClelland, James L., & Jeffrey L. Elman. 1986. The TRACE model of speech perception. Cognitive Psychology 18.1-86.


Article in Collection:

Vennemann, Theo. 1974. Topics, subjects, and word order: From SXV to SVX via TVX. In Historical linguistics, vol. 1, Syntax, morphology, and comparative reconstruction, edited by John Anderson & Charles Jones, pp. 339-376. Amsterdam: Benjamins.


Spell out the first names of authors and editors, when known; do not use abbreviations for names of publishers or journals. Cite original publication dates; add information on reprinting, if relevant, at the end of listings.


Citation in Text:

In your article, refer only sparingly to these bibliographical entries, but give page numbers for direct quotes, using the following style: (Chomsky 1981: 84).


Editorial Process

What to Submit and When. Target date for first drafts of all articles, both new and revisions, is December 15, 2000. Make three copies: submit one copy to the Editor in Chief and one to the Consulting Editor for your area. Keep the third for your file.


        Revisions of Old Articles: You will be supplied with the text of the article in a set of galleys. Revisions of the old articles must be provided using these galleys. You should write directly on the galleys. Please note that long text being added to the old articles can be typed and submitted on disk. Only minor corrections need to be marked by hand. More detailed instructions, which will also accompany the galleys, are below:


1.   Minor corrections can be made in-line, directly on the galleys. This includes all deletions, changes of punctuation or phrasing, moving text, and adding words, phrases, or single sentences.

2.   Insertions of two fair-sized sentences and greater can be provided on disk. Hardcopy of the insertions should be interleaved in the galleys, with a note to 妬nsert here. For example, on page 1030, a paragraph to be added can be typed and named 1030A; instructions on page 1030 should be to 的nsert A here.

3.   When deleting text, make sure that the bibliography reflects the change. Thus, if a paragraph is deleted containing the only reference to Smith (1980), that work should also be deleted from the bibliography.

4.   You do not need to mark for whole articles to be moved or deleted. This will be done by the editors.

5.   If an article contains extensive revisions to the previous text (i.e., not merely adding, moving, or deleting chunks of text but intensive, line-by-line changes), it can be resubmitted as a completely new file.

6.   Art is provided in the galleys for reference. In the actual book, all art will be placed as close as possible to the spot where it is first mentioned. If you delete the reference to a piece of art, please also indicate that the art should be deleted or else insert a reference elsewhere in the text.

7.   Special characters are provided in the galleys, based on the previous edition. Please check these for accuracy.

8.   Linguistic examples are also provided as they appeared in the previous edition. These too can be checked for accuracy in terms of alignment and style.


        New articles: For new articles, you should submit a hardcopy to the Consulting Editor for your area and a hardcopy to the Editor in Chief. These drafts will be read by the editors, who will evaluate the article for content and clarity and may contact you to request revisions or clarification.


Editors will send you their suggestions for changes by March 1, 2001. Final drafts of all articles -- new and revised -- are due September 1, 2001: submit a hardcopy to the Consulting Editor and both hardcopy and diskette to the Editor in Chief. The latter will notify you of final acceptance of your article. Macintosh and PC are both acceptable. Word processing should be in MS Word (WordPerfect is acceptable, but not desired). If you use a non-standard word processing program, please inquire first as to its acceptability.


Payment. After final acceptance of your article, you will be paid according to the compensation schedule in your contract:


   New Articles: 8 cents per word, exclusive of bibliography and graphics, up to the commissioned word count.

   Major Revisions: $125 or $200 in OUP books.

   Mid-range Revisions: $75 or $125 in OUP books.

   Minor Revisions: $50 or $75 in OUP books.

   Very Minor Revisions: $25 in OUP books.


Proofs. After typesetting, proofs will be sent to you for approval; it will be essential that you return them with the greatest promptness. At the proof-stage only changes for typographical and factual errors will be allowed, not stylistic second thoughts.


If you have questions on the content of your article, contact the Consulting Editor for your area. For questions on editorial matters, contact the Editor in Chief:


William Frawley

Dept. Linguistics

University of Delaware

Newark, DE 19716

302-831-6706 (O)

302-234-9493 (H)


The Encyclopedia痴 website, where you can find addresses, documents, and timetables, is