Amy Sebring: Good morning/afternoon everyone and welcome to
EMForum.org. I am Amy Sebring and will serve as your Host and Moderator
today and we are very glad you could join us.
We hope you will find today’s topic to be very helpful to you in
preventing common and costly mistakes under a Disaster Declaration for
public assistance, resulting from failing to closely follow all
Now it is my pleasure to introduce Michael Martinet, CEM and Principal
of the Martinet Group LLC, specializing in disaster finance training and
cost recovery planning. Previously he served as Emergency Planning
Manager with the Controller’s Office in the City and County of San
Francisco. He also served for 16 years as the Executive Director for the
Office of Disaster Management, Area G, a consortium of 14 cities in Los
Angeles County. Please see today’s Background Page for further
biographical details and links to related resources.
Welcome back Mike, and thank you very much for taking the time to be
with us today. I now turn the floor over to you to start us off please.
Mike Martinet: Thank you, Amy and good morning,
everyone. Thanks you for joining us. I’m delighted to be
here again. I start out with the spaceman picture. I suppose
many of you saw the movie “Gravity”. I am told by people who have
had the experience of working in a federal disaster for the first time
that it is not unlike this experience. You are free floating and
you don’t know where gravity and the ground are.
I have had twenty-five years as an emergency manager. I had a
Master’s Degree in emergency services administration and as a certified
emergency manager. More significantly I have been teaching finance
administration cost recovery for over fifteen years. I have done
forty classes primarily in California but in other states as well with
well over a thousand students who have been with me for these classes.
I am preaching to the choir here but as you can see this annual disaster
loss chart from Munich Re which is an international reinsurance company
and tracks natural disasters globally and worldwide. What is
significant about the line I just added is those are the insured losses
If you can see the cut-off, which is not great—you can see the
difference. That is typical for these catastrophic
disasters. Only half of the losses are insured. Fortunately
in this country we do have the Federal Emergency Management Agency’s
Stafford Act to provide us with additional financial resources and it
becomes critical when only half your losses are insured.
My work is largely based on audits. I have a collection of 250
audits which tells you the fabulous social life I have. I use
audits because this is where the rubber meets the road. You can
see where people are making mistakes and losing money and what are the
specific fixes they need to implement changes to avoid these kinds of
findings in the future.
This is how federal government people see our poorly managed project worksheets.
This is what they want to see.
We have to stay within the lines and use appropriate information because
this is how the auditors see those same files—strictly black and
white. Years after the emotion and drama of a disaster is over the
auditors come in and to them it is just if you followed the rules or
you did not. Their findings sometimes run into tens of millions of
In my review of audits and I’ve done an analysis of these 250 audits,
these are the top five audit problems that the auditors cite by numeric
count. Number one is purchasing and we’re going to get into that
in a minute. The second one is lack of proper documentation.
The third is ineligible work. The fourth is insurance and the
fifth is project management.
We are going to through those here and spend most of our time on purchasing. First I’m going to give you some examples.
This is a high school in the Midwest. They had a couple of issues
cited in the audit. One was repair versus replace and the other
was insurance. On purchasing they lost 1.36 million dollars on
This is a city on the west coast. They lost 16 million dollars on an audit.
This is a county in the northeast United States. The auditors hit
them for 39 million dollars in purchasing alone. The total
findings were for 48 million. Purchasing alone was 39
million. The United States senator from that state and FEMA
revised the finding and decided they only owed 705,000. That was a
rather extraordinary case in that reversal.
This is university in the southern part of the United States. In
August they got hit for 46 million dollars—every penny purchasing
This is a university in the Midwest. This was a repair/replace
situation. The OIG (Office of Inspector General) had a finding of
almost 84 million dollars they want back from the university
on this particular case. You can see some of these cases really run
into some serious money.
Where are we spending public assistance dollars? One experience is
most people want to track their fire, water, public works and emergency
response activities but this data comes from the FEMA website itself
from the fiscal years 2011 through 2012. The 2013 data is not yet
available. This is where the feds say they are spending money.
First of all you have water control facilities which is less than two
percent then you have state management which is very small, less than
three percent. We’re not going to concern ourselves with that.
This is recreation or other, just over three percent.
This is Category A, debris removal. I’m waiting for the 2013
numbers because that is going to include Sandy and I think we’re going
to see a big jump in those numbers for debris removal. Those
previous two years were kind of low.
Then you have Category F, public utilities.
Then you have Category B, protective measures. This is the law,
fire, sheltering, sandbagging and flood fights—we are going to come back
to that. I put that in red for a very specific reason. I’ll
talk about that more in a second.
Then we have public buildings—repair and replace.
Finally we have roads and bridges which is over 25 percent.
When we total these numbers, this Category B is still less than 20% of
all the federal money the feds distribute. In my experience that
is where most people focus their cost recovery efforts—tracking those
emergency numbers and units less than 20 percent.
What that means when we take away the state management is 79 % of the
money that cities and counties are spending goes through the purchasing
Almost 80 percent goes through the purchasing function but purchasing
people often are not a part of the emergency planning spectrum.
When we talk about disaster purchasing this is the kind of thing we
have—emergency supplies, food, water, ice, generators and fuel—those
kinds of things that we need for the crisis.
But when we are doing disaster purchasing we must follow our rules…
…we must follow federal rules. There are two sets of federal
rules. One is Title 44 Section 13.36 in the Code of Federal
Regulations. The other is Title Two of Federal Regulations (you
have Sections 215, 220, 225 and 230). For local governments you
only follow the 215. If you are a college, university or
non-profit—we only follow one of those four—they are almost identical.
If you are following Title 44 13.36 you are probably picking up all the
requirements in the other four sections. They are a little bit
Why am I telling you this? This is purchasing and not emergency
management. My observation is that most emergency managers are not
aware of this information. I have talked to dozens of people at
conferences and this is a big revelation to them. And purchasing
people don’t know it either. That is the key. No one is
really aware of this except Homeland Security auditors.
Let’s talk about the purchasing function for a minute. On our day
to day purchasing we have to follow our rules and our rules for buying
all of these different components on a day to day basis—regular
In a disaster we have a dual pathway. In that crisis phase we have
exigent circumstance, life and death situations. When we make
purchases without going through our processes they must address life
safety, a threat to public health or improved property.
We have a 70 hour window—the only way the feds allow us—it is a good
idea though to support those with documentation that shows why we bought
this stuff without going through the processes that it was necessary to
address an issue of life safety, a threat to public health or improved
Beyond that we have disaster related non-emergency purchases that must
comply with 44 CFR. Let me repeat that—disaster related but
non-emergency purchases. I’ll explain that concept in a
minute. Those must comply with 44 CFR and our day to day
For those sole source things, we can rent equipment, materials and
supplies, debris management for 70 hours, and emergency services but
again, they have to be in this criterion of exigent circumstances.
Once we get past that first phase—the first few days—we then have to start complying with 44 CFR for all of these purchases.
The fact we have a local of gubernatorial proclaimed disaster does not
give us an exemption from following the federal rules—no exemption
In my analysis I went through and did a search for every occurrence of
13.36 and these are what I call the dirty dozen—the most commonly cited
findings in audits. Cost-price analysis—so in 250 audits there
were 390 findings and almost 20% were related to cost-price analysis.
Unreasonable requirements—that includes geographic preferences—many
agencies will give a local vendor a slight preference in purchasing and
that violates federal codes. People fail to maintain procurement
records. They do sole source purchasing beyond that eligible
window and so on. You can read these. They won’t be
available but these are the most common findings for purchasing
The number one take away this morning is—“Does my agency’s purchasing
system meet federal requirements?” I am working with a client in
the San Francisco Bay area with sixteen agencies. I’ve looked at
the purchasing policies for four of those agencies. All four of
those agencies in one way or another violate some section of this Title
44 Section 13.36.
It is fairly common. If you look at the audits, you’ll see why.
The second most common failing is lack of supporting
documentation. This includes having all your purchasing
documentation in your file. That includes bid announcements, all
the bids—winning and losing—and all the contractor documents. We
have the three year retention period for documents and the contractors
we have also have to have three years past that close of the file.
What we need is a plan. Do we have separate stand alone disaster
cost-recovery plans? I have seen all kinds of emergency
plans. I’ve not yet seen a good current complete plan for disaster
cost recovery. The disaster itself may last a few days or a
couple of weeks but the cost recovery process goes on for years and
Fire, law and even public works get frequent and intense training.
Finance, purchasing and administrative people almost never get
training, yet their part of the disaster goes on for years and sometimes
decades. I think we have to refocus our training efforts and
realization in where the real costs of disasters lie.
Take away number two—“Do we really understand the breadth and depth of the documentation requirements?”
The third most common is ineligible work. Three out of ten failed
on this score. I have two clients working on a presidentially
declared disaster right now. One of them is interesting because
what was destroyed was a summer camp that the agency owned in the
mountains. The community goes up every summer and camps out but
the entire camp is on federally owned land.
It is owned by the United States Department of Agriculture. It is going
to have some interesting implications. One of the things they want them
to do, the USDA, is to cut down about 1400 trees. Those trees are
federal property and they sit on federal land. I’m not sure we’ll
be reimbursed for that work because it is the domain of another federal
agency. It is not eligible.
You can look at hundreds of cases where auditors cite and FEMA often
denies eligibility because we don’t understand going in what the rules
are. Eligibility also includes the fact that it has to be in the
disaster area, caused by the disaster—the legal responsibility of the
agency. This is a big deal—this legal responsibility.
In an analysis with one of my clients we looked at how many of the
agencies lease a building to or from another government agency, lease to
or from a private for or non-profit, because depending on how the lease
terms are structured they may have written themselves out of
responsibility to be eligible to get reimbursed for disaster damage.
That is one of the issues we are going to address. How do we make
sure we are eligible applicants—that we haven’t contracted that to
someone who isn’t eligible?
Eligibility—this is another issue that is coming up. People have
facilities they aren’t fully using. When you don’t fully use a
facility, that portion of the facility is not eligible for federal
The city of Atascadero, California lost 2.7 million dollars on an
eligibility issue because a building they reported as being 100% used
was in fact only a little over 80% used. When the auditors did the
calculations it cost them 2.7 million dollars for that empty space.
Ineligible work also includes lack of maintenance or deferred
maintenance. It includes work where you don’t have a maintenance
plan. I know of an agency not far from us here in Southern
California—heavy damage to their roof systems. They did not have a
regular roof inspection and they did not have a roof maintenance
program so FEMA denied eligibility for those damaged roofs.
That doesn’t mean however that ineligible expenses are lost
forever. We can capture that. The flagship example of this
is Joplin, Missouri. After the tornado ripped through there in May
of 2011 they did a fabulous job of tracking all the disaster volunteer
hours and in-kind donations. They got credit against their local
cost share of 17.7 million dollars.
Seventeen point seven million dollars they recovered—not as a payment
from FEMA but as money they did not have to pay to the federal
government as a local cost share. This is a shining example if you have a
disaster cost recovery program and it includes your volunteer component
it can be a substantial amount of money to the local agency when it is
Take away number three—“We need to understand eligibility requirements. This will help us avoid huge surprises later.”
The next one is insurance failure—findings relative to insurance in a variety of different cases.
The feds look at insurance—it is one of the special
considerations. It is written into every single project
worksheet. They want to know if we have insurance, how much is
covered and what is covered. They can deduct from the obligation
of the budget worksheet the actual or the anticipated insurance
If you have a 10 million dollar policy on a 10 million dollar building
they may owe you nothing but the deductible if they choose to interpret
it that day. They may wait and see what the insurance people
are going to pay and they pay the balance. Sometimes it doesn’t
go that way.
After a disaster applicants are required to obtain and maintain
insurance coverage on all insurable facilities. This is huge in
that portion of the country where they have flood insurance available.
If you don’t buy flood insurance after you get federally funded for a
disaster repair and reconstruction I can show you several audits where
the auditors come back and said that you didn’t buy insurance or
maintain insurance and therefore we want twelve million dollars
back. In one case in a southern city they wanted 62 million
dollars back because the city failed to purchase insurance.
That is a serious hit and also a nasty headline if you happen to be an
emergency manager or a finance director. We also have to know what
is covered by the policy. What are the deductibles? Do we have
before pictures so we can demonstrate to FEMA that this is the quality
of some things we had judged by these photos? Here are the after
photos. Pre-disaster photo documentation is very important and can
be a huge tool in getting the maximum federal reimbursements.
Here’s another issue. It’s a school district in Louisiana hit by
Hurricane Rita that had 500 buildings. Their policy said they had a
10,000 dollar per facility deductible. Ten thousand times 500 is 5
million dollars. Had the language read they had a 10,000 dollar
per occurrence—and Rita was the occurrence—their deductible would have
been only 10,000 dollars instead of 5 million dollars
Integrating our risk management people into our disaster cost public
program is extremely important because one out of four audits has
insurance related findings.
We have to ask ourselves how we are protecting our agency assets.
When were our insurance policies last reviewed and where are we keeping
them? The first time I took a class in cost recovery it was taught
by a gentleman who had been the state director for South Carolina and
they had a small city where the city hall was blown off its foundations
in a hurricane.
The feds were kind of abrupt and said they didn’t think they had this
nice a city hall. Why don’t you show us the plans? Where do
you store the plans for city hall? Typically they are stored in
the city hall. The question is if we have our important
documentation backed up off site out of the hazard zone that we’re
Another issue we have to look at is when we are doing the debris
clearance from the public right of way following a disaster the agency
has to go back to the homeowner and make an inquiry about debris removal
insurance. It is common in policies that if they had insurance
the homeowner has to go up against the insurance company and give that
money back for the local agency and sent back to FEMA otherwise they
will deduct that amount of money.
Otherwise they will deduct that amount of money and the experience they
have is that one out of every so many homes has it and they’ll make an
automatic deduction so we have to make good faith efforts to cost
recover insurance for debris removal.
Another thing we can do is determine in advance who our insurance
adjustor is going to be. A hospital in the San Diego area did this
before they were hit by a wildfire some years ago. The hospital
and insurance company agreed on an individual who would be the
adjustor. They both agreed they would honor the adjustor’s
It sped up the process and no one had a bad taste that they were taken
in by the other side. It is one of the little things we can do up
front for our own agency facilities—know who is going to be our
We have insurance nightmares. It may take a long time. One
of my clients in the Bay Area is telling me it may take insurance a year
to settle. That means they may be in limbo in terms of actual
cost recovery for at least a year while the insurance is settling
out. One of the ways we can speed up this process is to consider
using a public adjusting firm to bat for our team because the insurance
people are in business. And they are going to look to shave and cut
corners wherever they can. The public adjustor is someone who
works for us—they are paid by us—and they can help maximize our
Take away number four—“We want to make risk management a part of our
disaster cost recovery plan. Is our risk manager even
aware?” In one survey I did of communities, two-thirds of the
communities didn’t even have a full-time risk manager and yet we are
looking at millions or tens of millions of dollars in potential federal
disaster assistance. All of a sudden risk management becomes
a very significant player in the entire process.
The last of the top five is project management and accounting failures. People simply don’t have systems in place.
This is how the auditor sees our files when we don’t have good project
accounting. It is just simply a mass of documents. We can’t
solve this puzzle. We have no information and no colors.
There is no way to determine what is right and what is wrong. When
the auditors can’t determine that the findings always go against the
local agency. We have to have definition and good information in
our project management system.
Words are everything. We can write projects. We can explain
the damages in ways that are eligible and we can also explain them in
ways that are ineligible. How things are written is absolutely
Let me give you one example. You have a library that is hit by an
earthquake and all the books are off the shelves. If the
librarians come in and put the books back on the shelf, that is
librarians work and that is not eligible. If you have public works
come in and put the books and put on the shelf in no particular order,
that can be described as debris clearance and can be eligible.
Better yet have volunteers come in or contract outside workers to come
in and pick books up, clear debris, and it is now eligible in one way or
another as opposed to having the librarians do it. Yes, the
librarians will have to come in and put them in order but part of that
work can be eligible. There are lots of different things like
How we describe it can set off alarms to FEMA and the auditors or if we
write it properly and give it a full definition it won’t even raise an
Take away number five—“Are we integrating project management and
accounting into the disaster cost recovery plan?” In a survey I
recently did with clients we found virtually none of them had a system
in place for managing the whole project worksheet grants process.
Disaster cost recovery management is a team sport. We can’t do it
alone. We need risk management. We need our purchasing
people. I’m finding that we are going to be having some
discussions with city attorneys and county councils on issues about
leasing property to private for profit and non-profit and other
government agencies, other policies for disaster feeding and lodging for
We need to integrate the attorney so that lots of people outside the
emergency people—frankly I often don’t care if fire and law are at the
table in terms of cost recovery. From my experience they are not
going to be involved in this years and decades later. It is the
back office people and the business people within city government.
Disaster cost recovery is about good communication with all parties
involved. We have to be talking to all departments that sustain a
loss. We have to talk to our insurance carriers. We have to
talk to the state and to FEMA and we need to talk to other agencies that
were hit in a disaster. We just had an experience with this—two
clients were hit with this in the Bay Area.
FEMA was asking Client A about the building codes involved with Client
B. They are different cities of different sizes in the San
Francisco Bay yet that one city ought to know that FEMA is making
inquiries about its building codes. You will never know that
unless you are talking and communicating on a regular basis.
That’s my presentation. Thank you all once again. I’m going
to do a short non-commercial advertisement. The International
Association of Emergency Managers just started a disaster cost recovery
ad hoc committee. It is just forming up. We have about
thirty-eight members who have expressed interest. If you would
like to get on this committee or be on the mailing list, please send an
email to me at that address and in the subject line just put “disaster
cost recovery committee”.
I will add you to the list and make you a part of the emails I send
out. Amy, that is the presentation. I’m going to turn it
back to you and any questions you might get.
Amy Sebring: Thank you very much Mike. You have certainly given
us a few things to think about. Many are not so obvious. Hopefully we
won’t have to learn them the hard way as they have in the past. We will
move to the Q&A portion.
[Audience Questions & Answers]
Question: Amy Sebring: Did you mention a spreadsheet?
Mike Martinet: I did not. Thanks for bringing that
up Amy. Title 44 Section 13.36—that section of the federal code
has almost 100 points of compliance—things that we are required to do or
in some cases not to do to comply with federal regulations. If
you send me an email at that address I will send you an Excel
spreadsheet that contains every point of compliance within that section
of code and you can work your way through it.
It is fairly simple to use. The questions in there all want to be
answered yes. If you answer yes to all of them you will be on 100%
compliant. To the extent you answer no or unknown it will give
you a numeric compliance score. It is not a FEMA document it is
not in any way shape or form a federally approved document but it is a
detailed analysis of this code section that will give you a guidepost by
which you can measure your own purchasing policy.
I just started to distribute it. If you get it and use it I would
love to get your comments back on it. Put in the email “44 CFR
13.36 spreadsheet” and I will send that to you.
Question: Dan Linehan: At what point does the 70 hour rule start? Who declares the start?
Mike Martinet: My understand is—and that question came up
recently in a FEMA briefing—the local agency determines when that 70
hour period starts. Depending on the kind of disaster you have—if
you have a tornado it is a sudden start and maybe you can’t mobilize for
six or eight hours so why penalize yourself six or eight hours of that
The local agency can declare that start period. That said, that is
what they are telling us in Region IX. There are ten FEMA regions
and they all interpret things differently sometimes. Check with
your FEMA representative. That is what we were recently told in a
FEMA briefing—that the local agency determines the start time.
Check it. If there is anything about public assistance it is
variable across the country. Good question, though.
Question: Paul John: Do we recommend using an IMAT [Incident Management Assistance Team] and if so, what type and specialist?
Mike Martinet: I believe you would and it will depend on the
kind of disaster you have. What kind of IMAT team you use or if
you use one shouldn’t have a huge impact on cost recovery because they
will be in there for such a short time relative to the entire cost
recovery process. By the way I don’t know if there are any cost
recovery IMAT teams and that is one of the things I am hoping may come
out of this disaster cost recovery committee that the IAEM has just
Maybe we can pull together a cost recovery IMAT team. I’m not
aware that one exists anywhere the country. It is an excellent
idea and I know some people that would like to have one.
Question: Isabel McCurdy: Hi Mike, where does one find a public adjustor?
Mike Martinet: The yellow pages—young people don’t know
what the yellow pages are anymore. Search Yahoo. If you call
me offline I can give you the name of one company I know. They
are national. I’m not here to pitch anybody. Your insurance
agency is probably not going to want to share the information with you
because they are the opponent.
Yellow pages, or Google or give me a call offline or send an
email. IN one case I recently talked to one relative to one
of my clients and they said their typical experience is that they can
save sometimes upwards—they can get the client up to 70% more money from
insurance settlements than they would have gotten from the insurance
If I have to get brain surgery I want a real specialist and I want someone on my side.
Comment: Wm Warren: Today's emergency manager should know as much about
cost recovery as everything else (response, mitigation, etc...). I guess
that says a lot about how the field has advanced over the years.
Mike Martinet: That is what I’m trying to do—make people more
aware that cost recovery is huge. If I could get all the rest of
the money I wouldn’t care about police, fire or emergency money because I
know I’d get 80% which is way above the average for cost recovery.
Question: Carolyn Harshman: Who do you recommend "lead the charge"
on developing a Cost Recovery Plan? Seems like it should be risk
management or finance since the emergency manager is so far removed from
the daily processes.
Mike Martinet: That is a good question because this is
really an emerging area to me. Most emergency managers in my
experience don’t have the breadth and depth of knowledge of cost
recovery but finance and risk management people by and large in my
experience do not have this knowledge either. It is kind of a boot
I will say that I try to get to conferences and talk about this subject
often and when I get a chance I seem to grab people’s attention pretty
good. So I think it has to be raised but I’m finding the more I can
pitch this to finance directors and financial people it seems to get
much better traction than if I talk to the fire or police chief or even
the city manager—the finance people seem to grasp this much more.
I’m finding that the audit tools are really effective because this is
real life and no finance director wants to have a multimillion dollar
audit find against their agency.
Amy Sebring: You made the point about putting a team together for this purpose, right?
Mike Martinet: Absolutely. In fact that is one of
the things we are doing with one of my clients in the Bay Area is we are
going to be integrating emergency management, finance directors, risk
management, public works and other business people and office
people—fire and law will play a secondary role in the whole cost
recovery thing. They aren’t the real driving business
people. It is the finance and finance related people—purchasing
especially or accounting within a city.
Question: Andrew Berglund: Can you expound on the difference between using volunteers and contractors in relation to cost recovery?
Mike Martinet: If you are using contractors on disaster related
work, the cost of that contract, assuming the work is eligible, is
reimbursable by the federal government typically at 75% percent.
If you get into a big event like Katrina or Sandy it can go up to 90% or
theoretically higher. You spend the money on the contract and you
will get reimbursed when you put your documentation in.
For the volunteers you cannot get reimbursed. When I go the doctor
I have to pay twenty dollars co-pay. That is my share of the
doctor visit. The value of a volunteer’s time—in Joplin they had
100,000 volunteers—something along that order. They had 600,000
documented hours of volunteer time. They valued that time at just
under fifteen dollars an hour.
That alone was 9 million dollars that they could apply towards their
co-pay to the federal government. If I had a seventy five dollar
prescription in my hand when I went to the doctor’s office and they
would say I had already paid seventy-five dollars in medical care so I
wouldn’t owe us a co-pay today.
Contract is reimbursable and you have to spend the money.
Volunteers don’t get paid in the first place but you can value what you
would have paid them and use that to offset the share you would have to
pay to the federal government. (Like an in-kind donation.)
Question: Wm Warren: Would the cost of a public adjuster be considered a recoverable expenditure?
Mike Martinet: My understanding is that it may be. I
am told by a public adjustor that in Sandy the agency is getting
reimbursed for those expenses. It makes good sense in this way
because the more money the agency recovers from the insurance carrier
the less money FEMA has to put out. It makes sense that it is a
recoverable expenditure because ultimately it helps reduce the cost to
But again, we have to go and see which of the ten regions we are in the
United States to see whether they agree with that logic. One of
the things I say in class is that anything I say today could be wrong
tomorrow because as we all know regulations change and interpretations
Question: Amy Sebring: I understand FEMA is doing a new pilot to
simplify the public assistance procedures. Do you have any
information about that?
Mike Martinet: I read the regulations pretty carefully.
It is simplification in one way but it doesn’t reduce the complexity of
the process if that makes any sense. Most of the rules that were
in place in terms of process—the kinds of information we have to
have—the definition of scope of damage and scope of work, all the
paperwork still has to be done.
It is not simplified in that manner. What has simplified a little
bit is we now have alternate procedures that will allow us flexibility
in what we rebuild and how we rebuild or repair. Simplification is
probably not the most appropriate word to use. It gives us some
alternate pathways but those pathways for repair or reconstruction do
come at a potential cost.
They have to be analyzed very carefully, in my opinion, whether someone is going to use these alternate procedures or not.
Amy Sebring: Does it get you your money any faster?
Mike Martinet: It can. The question is, at what
cost? Once you commit to that you are fixed so if you get a
million dollar repair job and it ends up costing you a million three,
you are stuck with a million. It will not allow you any additional
money. If you get your money six months early it costs three
hundred thousand dollars to get that money early.
Each case has to be carefully weighed as to how sure you are of the
estimate and how sure you are there are going to be no unforeseen
circumstances. That’s why they call them unforeseen circumstances
because you can’t see them coming.
Amy Sebring: On behalf of Avagene, myself, and all our
participants, thank you very much Mike for being with us and sharing
this really excellent information.
Our next program will be March 19th when our topic will be “The NWS
Tsunami Program,” and our guest will be Rocky Lopes, now serving as
Deputy Program Manager for Stakeholder Engagement.
Thanks to everyone for participating today and have a great afternoon. We are adjourned.