Faculty Senate Committee on Diversity
and Affirmative Action
Report on Extraordinary Efforts to Recruit Minority Faculty
I. THE CHARGE
A. The Faculty Senate adopted a resolution on May 4, 1998 to reaffirm its support for the University's Affirmative Action policy on searches involving permanent faculty vacancies. The resolution called on search committees to engage in extraordinary efforts to recruit faculty and where appropriate to recruit faculty that can teach courses on diversity issues. The Senate minutes of that date read as follows:
1. RESOLVED: that for all current and future searches to fill vacancies, extraordinary efforts be instituted to identify outstanding minority candidates; and be it further
2. RESOLVED: to recruit faculty, where appropriate, who can teach on diversity issues, non-western culture and topics related to domestic and international ethnic diversity in addition to narrow and specialized subject matter, all searches to fill permanent faculty vacancies be national and international in scope.
B. Responsibility for identifying extraordinary efforts to recruit minority faculty was given to the Committee on Diversity and Affirmative Action. The Committee on Diversity and Affirmative Action is a standing committee of the Faculty Senate charged with the review of "all University policies and practices pertaining to diversity and affirmative action in the recruiting and retaining of students, staff and faculty."
C. In keeping with the Committee's general charge and directly related to the Faculty Senate resolution, the purposes of this report are threefold. First, to note the continuing need for and importance of the faculty Senate's commitment to extraordinary efforts to recruit minority faculty. Second, to expand upon the recruitment strategies suggested by the President's Commission to Promote Racial and Cultural Diversity. Third, to propose an expanded focus in the future on retention of minority faculty.
II. THE PROBLEM
A. The University of Delaware has an expressed commitment to a culturally and racially diverse community of faculty, students, and staff. To this end the University has made some progress in increasing the number of faculty who were members of a protected class as identified under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Given the demographics of our state and the region, it is important that we have a faculty that reflects the diversity of the region (and at minimum the student population) we serve. Nearly 17 percent of Delaware's population is of African heritage, 1.3 percent Asian, .03 percent Native American and 2.3 percent Hispanic. Currently, 5.6 percent of the University's student population is of African heritage, 2.4 percent are Hispanic, 2.7 percent are of Asian heritage, and .03 percent were Native Americans.
B. However, the University still has a long way to go toward increasing the proportion of the faculty who are of African, Asian/Pacific Island, Hispanic, or Native American heritage. Roughly eighty-seven percent of the full-time faculty at the University during the 1999-2000 academic year were white. All but one part-time faculty member was white. In 1995, 11.4 percent of the full-time faculty were either of African, Asian/Pacific Island, Hispanic, or Native American heritage. By 1999, the proportionate size of the faculty that was minorities increased by only one percent.
C. Among the minority faculty members, faculty of Asian/Pacific Island heritage experienced the greatest increase in their proportionate size between 1995 and 1999. In 1995, there were fifty-one faculty members of Asian/Pacific Island heritage and by 1999 this number had increased to seventy-one. In 1999, faculty of Asian/Pacific Island heritage represented 7.6 percent of the faculty. The University should be commended for the growth in the size of the Asian/Pacific Island faculty.
D. Unfortunately, the University has not experienced the same level of success in increasing the number of faculty of African, Hispanic, or Native American heritage. Since 1995, the number of faculty members of African heritage has increased by four. The number of Hispanic faculty members actually declined by three and Native American faculty declined by one. Based on the Office of Institutional Research and Planning's March 1998 Workforce Analysis, the proportion of the University's faculty who were of African heritage or Hispanic lagged behind the national figure.
E. If the University of Delaware wishes to be a leader in the world of academics it must work to diversify its faculty. Rapid globalization and technological advances necessitate that if the University is to remain a leader in the world of academia, it must work to achieve a culturally and racially diverse faculty. We are convinced that greater faculty diversity would enhance the learning experiences of all students, and provide students from ethnic and racial minority backgrounds with additional role models and mentors. To that end the faculty should be called on to take extraordinary efforts to recruit and retain minority faculty.III. THE IMPORTANCE
A. As stated in the President's Commission Report, "The University of Delaware is committed to an educational community that is intellectually, culturally, and socially diverse, and it is only enriched by the contributions and full participation of people from different backgrounds." It is clear to us that diversifying our staff must be a condition of our desire to achieve excellence.
B. Such diversity will enhance all aspects of the educational and community life of this institution. A culturally and racially diverse faculty enhances the learning experience of the majority student population by offering opportunities to engage different perspectives of life. It is important that minority students have mentors and role models on campus that shares a common heritage with them. The minority communities in the state (and the general population as a whole) would also benefit from a diverse faculty whose research interests address the problems and needs of the community.
C. To capture the University's vision of an intellectually, culturally, and socially diverse community, we must commit ourselves to taking proactive steps to address. Our claim to excellence depends on it.
IV. SUGGESTIONS FOR THE RECRUITMENT OF MINORITY FACULTY
A. Practices for Adoption
1. In its 1997-98 Annual Report, the President's Commission to Promote Racial and Cultural Diversity listed the following general suggestions and practices for adoption.
i. Assure that job descriptions and announcements for faculty positions are not drawn so "narrowly" as to preclude applications from faculty with broad academic backgrounds.
ii. Create and then aggressively market "Visiting Minority Professorships" for distinguished minority scholars, especially in disciplines where minority faculty is underrepresented.
iii. Require every academic department to submit a plan for diversifying the faculty before approval is given to fill a faculty vacancy.
iv. Require that the affirmative action officer participate actively in faculty search committee activities and develop a packet of information for each search committee that lists pertinent referral organizations as well as potential candidates for a vacant faculty position.
v. Provide funds for increased advertisement and travel so that search committee members are encouraged to expand their horizons in identifying potential minority applicants.
vi. Plan campus visits that emphasize a welcoming climate for minority candidates; involve Commission members in this activity.
vii. Review hiring packages offered to minority candidates to assure that all possible enhancements are included.
viii. Convince minority faculty candidates that the University of Delaware is interested in advancing their academic careers.
ix. Develop an orientation program for first-year faculty members to address the challenges and opportunities of teaching on a campus that encourages diversity on its faculty, staff, and student body.
B. General Suggestions
1. President's Commission to Promote Racial and Cultural Diversity suggestions to the recruitment of minority faculty (as reported in the 1997-1998 Annual Report). The Commission is currently working to expand their list.
i. Encourage deans and academic administrators to attend conferences on diversity and recruitment in higher education.
Ii Encourage the Provost or designee to participate in faculty search committee meetings
iii. Develop graduate programs that draw upon the talents of minority faculty so that minority Ph. D. students are encouraged to come to Delaware and perhaps stay on as junior faculty.
Iv Create close ties with historically Black colleges and universities to establish a network of African American scholars who can identify talented minority faculty for positions at Delaware
v. Maintain access to national faculty databases.
C. Faculty Senate Committee on Diversity and Affirmative Action Suggestions
1. The faculty senate's Diversity and Affirmative Action Committee suggests that departments and the University be called on to take "extraordinary efforts" to recruit and retain minority faculty through activities such as:
i. Continuing dialogue about race and race relations at the University;
ii. Through formal and informal dialogue, discuss issues and concerns associated with minority recruitment and the need to take extraordinary efforts to increase the number of minority candidates in the applicant pool;
iii. Identifying and/or expanding opportunities in the curriculum to reflect the teaching and research interests of minority faculty;
iv. Expanding the placement of ads in specialized journals and on websites that attract culturally and racially diverse audiences;
v. Encouraging search committees to routinely use their discipline's professional organization to identify potential minority candidates.
Vi Organizing small conferences and workshops to attract and familiarize minority candidates with the University;
vii. Encouraging the University to hire and/or promote minorities into senior administrative positions;
viii. Developing an interactive website designed to receive information from potential minority candidates;
ix. Extending invitations to senior minority candidates to lecture at the University;
x. Establishing endowed chairs that are attractive to senior minority candidates;
xi. Expanding the use of post-doctoral or visiting instructor status as a way of bringing minority faculty to campus;
xii. Encouraging departments to make the case to the appropriate dean for hiring the department's first choice and to consider hiring the short-listed minority candidate if the minority candidate is not the first choice but is qualified for the position and agreeable to the faculty of that department;
xiii. Encouraging the University to provide colleges and departments who have made significant attempts to diversify their faculty with special recognition and other incentives; and
xiv. Increasing graduate fellowship opportunities that will encourage minority students to apply.
Currently, the President's Commission to Promote Racial and Cultural Diversity is undertaking efforts to identify ways to increase the proportion of the faculty of African, Asian, Hispanic, and Native American heritage. While the University has expressed a commitment to a diverse community of faculty, students, and staff, the fact remains that "faculty hire faculty." The University's ability to recruit minority faculty depends heavily on the actions of both the administration and the faculty. Over the past ten years, the number of minorities with Ph. Ds has gradually increased, and the increase in the number of minority faculty at the University of Delaware needs to reflect this trend. Finally, although the emphasis of the report has been on cultural and racial diversity among the faculty, it is equally important that these diversity issues and solutions be used to achieve gender and sexual orientation diversity.
A. Resources on Recruitment and Retention of Minority Faculty
Diversity Web, an interactive resource hub for higher education. It includes the following areas: Recommended Resources, Discussion Forums, and Institution Profiles. These links are related to more than just recruitment/retention, but recruitment/retention is certainly included here. Within Recommended Resources, there is a link called "Faculty and Staff Recruitment, Promotion, and Tenure," which includes 14 links to studies, projects, journals, etc. directly related to our topic. The "Institution Profiles" link includes information on hundreds of colleges and universities, including statistics on population and on their policies related to diversity. The Association of American Colleges and Universities and the University of Maryland creates this site.
B. Faculty and Staff Recruitment, Promotion and Tenure
Provides links to databases:
And reports, such as:
Participants most often recommended: Multiple hires and targeted hiring; Revising hiring criteria; "Grow Your Own" programs; Restructuring the faculty reward system; Providing orientation, mentoring, community- building/networking, and professional development.
C. Research, Evaluation, and Impact
Provides links to the following reports:
D. Plans from Other Universities
1. Recruiting and retaining A Diverse Workforce
(Excerpt: A Framework to Foster Diversity at Penn State: 1998-2003)
Strategies include: Monitor the success of efforts to create a diverse workforce; Develop information packets and a list of contact persons to assist units in recruiting faculty and staff from underrepresented groups; Develop and implement a plan to establish a functional staff development center serving women and underrepresented minorities; Appoint coordinators/directors of minority programs to search committees; Develop a plan to expand access to support services provided by the Senior Faculty Mentor; Complete design and implementation of a systematic exit interview process; Use the findings to recommend policies to reduce disproportionate attrition of faculty and staff who are members of underrepresented groups; Maintain support for the Minority Professional Entry and Staff Assistant Development Programs; Continue design of and advocacy for "family friendly" employment policies and augmented reward systems
2. Penn President's Letter
Strategies include: Special supplemental allocation of $5 million ($1 million/year) for recruitment and retention of students and faculty; Within existing fundraising campaign, raise $20 million to establish endowment for recruitment, retention, and diversity programs; Seek $250,000 to support faculty and student research on diversity in university settings; Appointment of Special Advisor to President
3. Diversity and Equity: A Blueprint for Action
University of Colorado at Boulder
Strategies include: Progress reports from academic units regarding efforts to hire minority faculty and integrating diversity focus into all unit reviews; Engage successful minority faculty in recruitment efforts; Enhance support for "special opportunities" programs, research funding, and professional development; Communication about recent changes in promotion and tenure standards that offer broader criteria; Enhance mentoring programs; Enhance 1st, 3rd, and 6th year preparation workshops on tenure; Exit interviews with minority faculty to identify issues; Monitor benchmarks of progress in other institutions.
4. Summary of Recommendations In Madison Plan 2008: Faculty And Staff
Strategies include: Collaboration between Ethnic Studies departments and others on recruitment efforts; Focus on hiring into positions available through faculty turnover; Funds for "dissertator-in-residence" and visiting faculty; Continue orientation and guidance for new faculty; Encourage mentor relationships.
5. Southern Illinois University
Minority Faculty Recruitment and Retention
Strategies include: Seminars devoted to issues of diversity; Special funds for initial salary supplements from administration, research and professional development support; Focus on including minority candidates in hiring pools.
6. Brown University
Strategies include: Aggressive recruitment through the regular search process, including "over-hiring" from short list of candidates; Pre-select process for talented minority faculty at the tenured level; Program to hire minority visiting faculty on a temporary basis; Potential provision of additional incentives to individual academic units taking into account contributions made to the broad institutional goals of increasing faculty diversity;
Minority Faculty Reinvestment Fund providing base budget support of $550,000 annually to the provost for the implementation of this plan.