Exam 1: What to study for it
I have tried to include the key issues, but this list does not necessarily
include absolutely everything that will be on the test. Remember that you will
have to APPLY many of these ideas. You should understand the differences in
basic concepts. This means not only knowing their definitions, but also the
PURPOSES, needs, or goals they reflect.
- Controversies over the aims and effects of externally-mandated
Purposes of assessment; relation of assessment to instruction; distinction
between assessment, testing, and
in types of items: selection vs. supply; objective vs. not; completion,
short-answer, matching, multiple-choice, essay (restricted vs. extended
response versions), vs. performance-based items (restricted vs. extended
response versions)—and whether each of these is supply or selection, objective
in types of interpretations of test scores: criterion-referenced vs.
in types of tests (once again, knowing for what purpose each is used):
pre-instruction tests (readiness, pretest, and placement), formative,
diagnostic, and summative. Their differences in purpose often mean that their
breadth of content must also be different—for instance, mastery vs. survey.
reliability, usability: what are they and why is
each important? For what kinds of decisions is test reliability
forms of evidence for the valid use of tests: content, construct, criterion,
and consequences. Which is most important when you put
classroom tests together?
can you do that might hurt or help the validity of your tests?
(What can lead
to contamination or deficiency in sampling your achievement domain, for
can you do that might hurt or help the reliability of your tests?
of specifications, Bloom complexity levels, achievement domain (how are they
related, and why are they important?)
learning outcomes—why are they so important, how should they be written?
types of test items
definitions/forms/varieties within categories
(objective-subjective; selection-supply; T/F, MC,
- principles for selecting one item type over
another (relevance, reliability,
- similarities and differences (form/freedom
of response, purpose in using,
that just about everything we talk about goes back to purpose: what is my
purpose in gathering this information? What inferences do I want to be able to
draw from it? And, most basically, what do I want my students to learn? Your
selection of items types and test types, for instance, must follow from your
instructional goals (i.e., your specific learning outcomes).