Phone: 302-831-3011

Current Personnel & Students
Samuel Lee, PT, PhD – Clinician Scientist
Henry Wright, PT – Research Physical Therapist
Nicole Zahradka, MS – Doctoral Student
Anastasia Zarkou, PT, MS – Doctoral Student
Ahad Behboodi, MS – Doctoral Student

Previous Personnel & Students:
Laura Prosser, PT, PhD
Ann Tokay, PT, PhD

Dr. Lee shares facilities and research equipment with Dr. Binder-Macleod at the University of Delaware and with the Research Department at Shriners Hospitals for Children in Philadelphia.

Pediatric Mobility Lab & Design Studio at the
University of Delaware

The human muscle performance laboratory, a 350 sq. foot laboratory, is used to perform strength testing and research in electrical stimulation of skeletal muscle. Electrical stimulation of skeletal muscle can be used to assist individuals with muscle weakness or paralysis to perform functional movements. Using electrical stimulation to assist function is called Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES). The overall goal of the laboratory is to contribute to the development of techniques and hardware to improve FES. Both experimental and computer modeling work are used to enhance understanding of factors that affect the force responses of skeletal muscle to electrical stimulation. Such study is used to optimize (maximizing force while minimizing fatigue) muscle performance during repetitive electrically elicited muscle contractions.

Equipment includes:
  • 2 instrumented computerized force dynamometers (KIN-COMs)
  • Grass S8800 stimulators
  • Customized LabVIEW application software
  • A to D and I/O boards
  • Storage oscilloscopes
  • A digital data recorder

  • Research Department at Shriners Hospitals for Children in Philadelphia
    The Research Department at Shriners Hospitals for Children is used to perform research to develop innovative approaches to enhance function in children with paralysis and neuromuscular dysfunction. The laboratory's primary focus is to design, investigate, and implement FES systems in children impaired by spinal cord injury and cerebral palsy. Both external and implanted electrical stimulation techniques are used as a neuromuscular prosthesis or to train muscle strength and enhance motor control. The department consists of an office area, director's office, electronics shop, a body weight supported treadmill training room and two multi-purpose patient areas for patient training, developing stimulated movements, and collecting clinical research data. A fully instrumented motion analysis laboratory and a fully equipped orthotics and prosthetics manufacturing shop support the efforts of the Research Department.
    Motion analysis laboratory
    • 7-Camera Vicon System
    • 4 Floor-Mounted AMTI Force Plates
    • Novel emed foot pressure System
    • Split-Screen Video Analysis System
    • 16-Channel Delsys EMG system
    Additional Equipment
    • 10 FES Cycling systems
    • Body Weight Supported Treadmill System
    • Custom Instrumented-Pedal Recumbent Cycling System for 3-D Biomechanical Analysis
    • 2 Instrumented Computerized Force Dynamometers (Kin-Com)
    • Clinical & Research Electric Stimulators
    • Sensormedics Metabolic Cart
    • Electronics Shop
    • O&P Shop
    • Grasp Generation Facility
    • Gait detection system
    • TMS stimulator
    For information...
    Please contact the Research Department at (302) 831-3011 or Email Dr. Samuel Lee at